hofstede cultural dimensional theory

3848 Words16 Pages
Hofstede 1 Running Head: HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: THE BASICS AND THE CRITICISMS ra oi M Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: E. The Basics and the Criticisms Moira E. Hanna H Clemson University na an Hofstede 2 Abstract Hofstede’s model (1980) has been used widely in research in the past two decades. The culture-based model consists of four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinity-femininity. Each of these dimensions was identified through the use of group-level data collected from IBM branches in 40 different countries. Despite the contributions of the model to cultural research, it has faced many criticisms over the years. Some in-principle…show more content…
H Power distance, which is typically measured at a national or collective level, must also be an measured at an individual level. The reasoning behind this clarification is that a country na as a whole may exhibit high power distance, but the distribution of individuals within the country typically follows a normal curve. Primarily, some people will be extremely high or low on power distance, but the majority center around the intermediate levels of power distance. Despite the difference between national and individual levels of power distance, the individual does influence the national level. In a study done by Maznevski, DiStefano, Gomez, Noorderhaven, and Wu (2002), it was found that when cultural data was first gathered at the individual level then aggregated to the national level, there was a Hofstede 5 difference in means between countries. This indicates that, the average individual level of power distance will be higher in a country that is ranked high on power distance. So what exactly influences the individual level of power distance? Such aspects as age, where you grew up, and if you moved away from the country help to determine each individual’s level of power distance (Triandis, 2004; Yamada & Singelis, 1999). The idea of individual and national levels of analysis presented for power distance also holds true for the remaining three cultural dimensions. M The second dimension is uncertainty avoidance.
Open Document