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2419 Words Sep 15th, 2014 10 Pages
Study Questions: 1.) Why is sub-soiling needed in soils with hard pans?

Sub-soiling is essential especially to hard pan layer because it will help the roots penetrate deep and be able to explore and obtain water and nutrients from larger volume of soil. Hard span obstructs root's downward proliferation and restricts root growth of crops (of crops that have vertical root growth). With sub-soiling, the needed soil depth, at least 80cm will be met . With sub-soiling, we can break hard pan without inversion and with less disturbance of top soil.

2.) Show that a triangular system has 15% more plants than a square system using the same distance of planting by computing the number of plants in each system.

If we give certain values for
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These includes in sequence, plouging, clod crushing, leveling, discing , harrowing, manure mixing & compacting the soil and implements to be used are ploughs, clod crushers, disc ploughs or harrow , bladed harrow etc.
It includes primary & secondary tillage:
a) Primary tillage: It mainly includes the ploughing operation which is opening of the compacted soil with the help of different ploughs. Ploughing is done to:
1) Open the hard soil,
2) Separate the top soil from lower layers,
3) Invert the soil whenever necessary and
4) Uproot the weeds & stubbles.
The cutting & inverting of the soil that is done after the harvest of the crop or untitled fallow or to bring virgin or new land under cultivation is called primary tillage. It may be done once or twice a tear in normal or settled agriculture or once in four to five years in dry land agriculture. b) Secondary tillage : Lighter or finer operation performed on the soil after primary tillage are known as secondary tillage which includes the operations performed after ploughing, leveling, discing, harrowing etc.
2. Seedbed preparation: when the soil is brought to a condition suitable for germination of seeds & growth of crops, called as SEEDBED.
After preparatory tillage the land is to be laid out properly for irrigating crops if irrigation is available for sowing or planting seeding which are known as seedbed preparation: It includes harrowing, leveling, compacting the soil, preparing irrigation layouts such as
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