Essay on internal combustion engines of the future

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Internal Combustion Engines for the Future
Horst Schulte, Martin Wirth
Ford Motor Company
Future internal combustion engines for light duty applications will have to cope with a very complex set of customer, legal and business requirements. Customers are expecting further improvements in durability, reliability, drivability, fuel economy, and cost of ownership. Legal requirements are focused on significant emission and fuel consumption reductions. Additional manufacturing cost reductions will be essential to maintain, or better grow the business in a very competitive environment.
The challenge for the diesel engine will be to meet the future emission standards at affordable cost, while maintaining its fuel economy advantages.
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Customers are very focused on total cost of ownership, which is determined by such factors as price, resale value, fuel consumption
(and fuel price), maintenance cost, as well as reliability and durability. At the same time, customer expectations regarding "fun to drive" are still increasing. This translates into a continuation of the "power and torque race" to further improve vehicle performance and drivability (Figure 2).
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
NA Gasoline
NA Diesel
Specific Power [kW/ltr.]
Model Year
Figure 2: Development of Specific Power of Gasoline and Diesel Engines
Advanced boosting technologies will play a major role to further increase specific power and torque. In this context, turbocharging will maintain it's dominant role.
In addition to performance improvements, at steadily rising fuel prices, customers are expecting further improvements in fuel economy and comfort (NVH) in bigger (heavier) vehicles with more features and equipment. Another set of conflicting boundary conditions for the reduction of the fuel
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