pain Essay

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Q.2- Discuss what neuromodulators are and how they modulate the sensation of pain.

The sensation and clarification of pain includes activation of individuals brain regions associated with spatial discriminative and affecting mechanisms of pain awareness. This is clearly a potential concern of movement of the primary afferent nociceptor, and comprises integration of the polysynaptic yield from the primary afferent through several arising pathways. The exact position of specific supraspinal regions related with pain perception is complex and rather unstated. Present research has focused on spinal mechanisms of pain transduction.

The dorsal horn comprises of multiple peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and
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Nociceptors have a major role in pain pathway. As shown in the diagram above Aδ and C fibres are the free nerves ending by which the nociceptors are established to be the primary afferent fibers, every fiber have diverse features in terms of myelin sheets, diameter and thresholds to control the speed of the signal to reach the secondary afferent neurones . Next, the synapse of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord receives the signal from Aδ and C fibres that sends information to the nociceptive specific neurons located in rexed lamina I and II resulting of secretion of excitatory neurotransmitters like substance P and glutamate. Moreover, complex interactions are involved at the level of dorsal horn between afferent neurons by which they determine the function of the secondary afferent fibers in terms of excitatory or inhibitory. Furthermore, mainly there are two pathways that a signal can reach the brain through.

The spinothalamic tract which involves 2nd afferent neurons that decussate within the segments of the level of entry of the spinal cord raising the contralateral spinothalamic tract to reach the thalamus and then third afferent fibers carry the signal to the somatosensory cortex in the brain, such pass way is to localization of the pain The spinothalamic tract is when the nerve fibers also decussate in the spinal cord but they project to brainstem reticular formation before reaching the thalamus. Other than that, there so many projection to the

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