summary of a season of grace

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Chapter 1: Major issues in second language classroom research.

Chapter one is all about the major issues in second language instruction that arose during classroom research. There are four general issues concerning the effectiveness of the classroom instruction that was mentioned. The first issue is entitled “Learning from instruction” which concerns Krashen’s extensive analysis of the role of instruction within his framework of interpreting L2 acquisition, wherein he views the effects of instruction as limited, however: the classroom should function to provide the learner with comprehensible target language (TL) input in an affectively supportive climate. The second issue is entitled “Teacher talk” the main goal of this research
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And the last one is the modification of discourse, which has two categories: the framing moves, where the only significant difference in framing moves was that visiting teachers used more, compared with the regular teachers. The second category is the self-repetition, where on the assumption that repetitions may provide the learner with more opportunities to process information or follow the teacher’s model. In this review, a variety of teacher behaviors have been described and compared across different contexts.

Chapter 4: Learner behavior in second language classrooms

Chapter four reviews research on the characteristics of learner behavior- participation and speech. They consider research on the contribution of the learner acquisition of a second language. Classroom researchers have focused on learner’s verbal and social interactions and have inferred learning strategies from learner’s behavior in such interactions. There were also hypotheses in the data and tentative conclusions about relationships to learning that are described in this chapter. These hypotheses will form the basis for organizing the results of studies on learner behavior. Research on learner’s classroom behaviors addressed several major hypotheses. In addition, a final section of this chapter examines studies of learner’s
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