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Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2). pp. 77-101. ISSN
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Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2). pp. 77?101”. Qualitative Research in Psychology is available online at:

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In this paper, we aim to fill what we, as researchers and teachers in qualitative psychology, have experienced as a current gap: the absence of a paper which adequately outlines the theory, application, and evaluation of thematic analysis, and one which does so in a way accessible to students and those not particularly familiar with qualitative research. 1 That is, we aim to write a paper which will be useful as both a teaching and research tool in qualitative psychology. Therefore, in this paper we discuss theory and method for thematic analysis, and clarify the similarities and differences between different approaches that share features in common with a thematic approach.
Qualitative approaches are incredibly diverse, complex and nuanced (Holloway & Todres, 2003), and thematic analysis should be seen as a foundational method for qualitative analysis. It is the first qualitative method of analysis that researchers should learn, as it provides core skills that will be useful for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Indeed, Holloway and Todres (2003:
347) identify “thematizing meanings” as one of a few shared generic skills across qualitative analysis.2 For this reason, Boyatzis (1998) characterises it not as a specific method but as a tool to use across different methods. Similarly, Ryan and Bernard (2000) locate thematic coding as a process performed within „major‟ analytic traditions (such as grounded theory), rather than a
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