Essay about tornadoes

1248 Words Sep 6th, 2014 5 Pages
1) Why was the use of the telescope by Galileo, 400 years ago, such a significant event in the history of astronomy? (120 words, 2 marks)
The introduction of Galileo's refracting telescope was a significant event in history because of the conclusions Galileo proved using his instrument. He disproved the Roman Catholic Church's belief that the Earth was at the centre of the universe, instead of the Sun. He observed the moon-like areas on Venus that could only be true if the Sun was at the centre of the universe. He further discovered that the Moon did not have a smooth surface, but was covered with mountains and craters. Galileo also discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, reinforcing that the Sun was at the centre of the universe.
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(120 words, 2 marks)
There is considerable controversy over some of the earliest fossil evidence for life on Earth, given the extreme difficulty in fossil formation. Fossil formation occurs when the bones of dead organisms are preserved by the elements, particularly sedimentation. It is difficult to find convincing evidence of life at these stages as the earliest forms of life were organisms with soft bodies like algae. These bodies had no hard shell and little internal structure and thus left behind little evidence of their existence. The stromatolite evidence found, dating back to this era, suggest that a consortia of species with diverse metabolic needs existed and competed over resources under hostile conditions, forming the fossils we observe today.

4) What are the main features that are shared by the Solar System's four giant (or jovian) planets? (150 words, 3 marks)
The four jovian planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. Similarities of Jovian planets include that:
1) Jupiter and Saturn are mainly composed of hydrogen and helium
2) Neptune and Uranus are mainly composed of water, ammonia and methane
3) These planets all have less density compared to the terrestrial planets
4) These planets all have strong magnetic field due to their high speed of rotation
5) These planets all have low temperatures as they are

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