Fig. 1 shows the completed map of the catalytic cycle of an enzyme.
Fig.1: Catalytic cycle of an enzyme
Enzymes are proteins which act as biocatalysts to speed up the reactions. Enzymes play a major role in lowering the activation energy.
Active site can act as a groove or pocket on the enzyme surface. They are the specific regions in which the substrate binds for a reaction to proceed.
The enzyme reacts with certain molecules called as substrates to form the enzyme–substrate complex formed by the weak hydrogen bonds. These substrates then bind to the active site.
The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme to form an induced fit model. This model explains about the enzyme–substrate [E-S] formation. When a substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, the shape of the enzyme changes corresponding to the substrate to fit tightly in order to improve the catalysis activity.
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