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What determines ∆Ssurr for a process? To calculate ∆Ssurr at constant pressure and temperature, we use the following equation: ∆Ssurr = −∆H/T. Why does a minus sign appear in the equation, and why is ∆Ssurr inversely proportional to temperature?

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The sign of depends upon the direction of heat flow. In exothermic reactions, heat flows into the surroundings which increase the entropy of the surrounding. Therefore, is positive. For endothermic reactions, is negative.

The depends upon the quantity of heat transferred and inversely on temperature.

The formula to calculate is,


  • is the change in enthalpy.
  • is the temperature.

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