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Question

What determines ∆Ssurr for a process? To calculate ∆Ssurr at constant pressure and temperature, we use the following equation: ∆Ssurr = −∆H/T. Why does a minus sign appear in the equation, and why is ∆Ssurr inversely proportional to temperature?

Solution Preview

The sign of http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_e4318d9983b612c23f7740641472ab1d.png depends upon the direction of heat flow. In exothermic reactions, heat flows into the surroundings which increase the entropy of the surrounding. Therefore, http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_e4318d9983b612c23f7740641472ab1d.png is positive. For endothermic reactions, http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_e4318d9983b612c23f7740641472ab1d.png is negative.

The http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_e4318d9983b612c23f7740641472ab1d.png depends upon the quantity of heat transferred and inversely on temperature.

The formula to calculate http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_8c69fbe18d322282324892fa2150c986.png is,

http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_1d969858219ebd6b9072aa01c833860c.png

Where,

  • http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_575add9df99af8811a49271a9be0082c.png is the change in enthalpy.
  • http://seo-question-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/9781305079243/79243-16-3RQ/img_0134c387f536bc6efeb2e65c499dc546.png is the temperature.

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