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Henry Gray (1825–1861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.

5b. The Lateral Cervical Muscles

The lateral muscles are:   1
Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoideus.
  The Trapezius is described on page 432.   2  The Fascia Colli (deep cervical fascia) (Fig. 384).—The fascia colli lies under cover of the Platysma, and invests the neck; it also forms sheaths for the carotid vessels, and for the structures situated in front of the vertebral column.   3   The investing portion of the fascia is attached behind to the ligamentum nuchæ and to the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. It forms a thin investment to the Trapezius, and at the anterior border of this muscle is continued forward as a rather loose areolar layer, covering the posterior triangle of the neck, to the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, where it begins to assume the appearance of a fascial membrane. Along the hinder edge of the Sternocleidomastoideus it divides to enclose the muscle, and at the anterior margin again forms a single lamella, which covers the anterior triangle of the neck, and reaches forward to the middle line, where it is continuous with the corresponding part from the opposite side of the neck. In the middle line of the neck it is attached to the symphysis menti and the body of the hyoid bone.   4   Above, the fascia is attached to the superior nuchal line of the occipital, to the mastoid process of the temporal, and to the whole length of the inferior border of the body of the mandible. Opposite the angle of the mandible the fascia is very strong, and binds the anterior edge of the Sternocleidomastoideus firmly to that bone. Between the mandible and the mastoid process it ensheathes the parotid gland—the layer which covers the gland extends upward under the name of the parotideomasseteric fascia and is fixed to the zygomatic arch. From the part which passes under the parotid gland a strong band extends upward to the styloid process, forming the stylomandibular ligament. Two other bands may be defined: the sphenomandibular (page 297) and the pterygospinous ligaments. The pterygospinous ligament stretches from the upper part of the posterior border of the lateral pterygoid plate to the spinous process of the sphenoid. It occasionally ossifies, and in such cases, between its upper border and the base of the skull, a foramen is formed which transmits the branches of the mandibular nerve to the muscles of mastication.   5   Below, the fascia is attached to the acromion, the clavicle, and the manubrium sterni. Some little distance above the last it splits into two layers, superficial and deep. The former is attached to the anterior border of the manubrium, the latter to its posterior border and to the interclavicular ligament. Between these two layers is a slit-like interval, the suprasternal space (space of Burns); it contains a small quantity of areolar tissue, the lower portions of the anterior jugular veins and their transverse connecting branch, the sternal heads of the Sternocleidomastoidei, and sometimes a lymph gland.   6

FIG. 384– Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Showing the arrangement of the fascia coli. (See enlarged image)
    The fascia which lines the deep surface of the Sternocleidomastoideus gives off the following processes: (1) A process envelops the tendon at the Omohyoideus, and binds it down to the sternum and first costal cartilage. (2) A strong sheath, the carotid sheath, encloses the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. (3) The prevertebral fascia extends medialward behind the carotid vessels, where it assists in forming their sheath, and passes in front of the prevertebral muscles. It forms the posterior limit of a fibrous compartment, which contains the larynx and trachea, the thyroid gland, and the pharynx and esophagus. The prevertebral fascia is fixed above to the base of the skull, and below is continued into the thorax in front of the Longus colli muscles. Parallel to the carotid sheath and along its medial aspect the prevertebral fascia gives off a thin lamina, the buccopharyngeal fascia, which closely invests the Constrictor muscles of the pharynx, and is continued forward from the Constrictor pharyngis superior on to the Buccinator. It is attached to the prevertebral layer by loose connective tissue only, and thus an easily distended space, the retropharyngeal space, is found between them. This space is limited above by the base of the skull, while below it extends behind the esophagus into the posterior mediastinal cavity of the thorax. The prevertebral fascia is prolonged downward and lateralward behind the carotid vessels and in front of the Scaleni, and forms a sheath for the brachial nerves and subclavian vessels in the posterior triangle of the neck; it is continued under the clavicle as the axillary sheath and is attached to the deep surface of the coracoclavicular fascia. Immediately above and behind the clavicle an areolar space exists between the investing layer and the sheath of the subclavian vessels, and in this space are found the lower part of the external jugular vein, the descending clavicular nerves, the transverse scapular and transverse cervical vessels, and the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus muscle. This space is limited below by the fusion of the coracoclavicular fascia with the anterior wall of the axillary sheath. (4) The pretrachial fascia extends medially in front of the carotid vessels, and assists in forming the carotid sheath. It is continued behind the depressor muscles of the hyoid bone, and, after enveloping the thyroid gland, is prolonged in front of the trachea to meet the corresponding layer of the opposite side. Above, it is fixed to the hyoid bone, while below it is carried downward in front of the trachea and large vessels at the root of the neck, and ultimately blends with the fibrous pericardium. This layer is fused on either side with the prevertebral fascia, and with it completes the compartment containing the larynx and trachea, the thyroid gland, and the pharynx and esophagus.  80   7   The Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternomastoid muscle) (Fig. 385) passes obliquely across the side of the neck. It is thick and narrow at its central part, but broader and thinner at either end. It arises from the sternum and clavicle by two heads. The medial or sternal head is a rounded fasciculus, tendinous in front, fleshy behind, which arises from the upper part of the anterior surface of the manubrium sterni, and is directed upward, lateralward, and backward. The lateral or clavicular head, composed of fleshy and aponeurotic fibers, arises from the superior border and anterior surface of the medial third of the clavicle; it is directed almost vertically upward. The two heads are separated from one another at their origins by a triangular interval, but gradually blend, below the middle of the neck, into a thick, rounded muscle which is inserted, by a strong tendon, into the lateral surface of the mastoid process, from its apex to its superior border, and by a thin aponeurosis into the lateral half of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone.   8  Variations.—The Sternocleidomastoideus varies much in the extent of its origin from the clavicle: in some cases the clavicular head may be as narrow as the sternal; in others it may be as much as 7.5 cm. in breadth. When the clavicular origin is broad, it is occasionally subdivided into several slips, separated by narrow intervals. More rarely, the adjoining margins of the Sternocleidomastoideus and Trapezius have been found in contact. The Supraclavicularis muscle arises from the manubrium behind the Sternocleidomastoideus and passes behind the Sternocleidomastoideus to the upper surface of the clavicle.   9  Triangles of the Neck.—This muscle divides the quadrilateral area of the side of the neck into two triangles, an anterior and a posterior. The boundaries of the anterior triangle are, in front, the median line of the neck; above, the lower border of the body of the mandible, and an imaginary line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the Sternocleidomastoideus; behind, the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. The apex of the triangle is at the upper border of the sternum. The boundaries of the posterior triangle are, in front, the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus; below, the middle third of the clavicle; behind, the anterior margin of the Trapezius. The apex corresponds with the meeting of the Sternocleidomastoideus and Trapezius on the occipital bone. The anatomy of these triangles will be more fully described with that of the vessels of the neck (p. 562).   10   
      Nerves.—The Sternocleidomastoideus is supplied by the accessory nerve and branches from the anterior divisions of the second and third cervical nerves.   11  Actions.—When only one Sternocleidomastoideus acts, it draws the head toward the shoulder of the same side, assisted by the Splenius and the Obliquus capitis inferior of the opposite side. At the same time it rotates the head so as to carry the face toward the opposite side. Acting together from their sternoclavicular attachments the muscles will flex the cervical part of the vertebral column. If the head be fixed, the two muscles assist in elevating the thorax in forced inspiration.   12

FIG. 385– Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. (See enlarged image)