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The World Factbook. 2008.


Flag of Latvia                                Map of Latvia
Background:The name “Latvia” originates from the ancient Latgalians, one of four eastern Baltic tribes that formed the ethnic core of the Latvian people (ca. 8th-12th centuries A.D.). The region subsequently came under the control of Germans, Poles, Swedes, and finally, Russians. A Latvian republic emerged following World War I, but it was annexed by the USSR in 1940 – an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. Latvia reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Location:Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
Geographic coordinates:57 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 64,589 sq km
land: 63,589 sq km
water: 1,000 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:total: 1,348 km
border countries: Belarus 141 km, Estonia 343 km, Lithuania 588 km, Russia 276 km
Coastline:498 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:low plain
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Galzina Kalns 312 m
Natural resources:peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land
Land use:arable land: 28.19%
permanent crops: 0.45%
other: 71.36% (2005)
Irrigated land:200 sq km
note: land in Latvia is often too wet, and in need of drainage, not irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq km or 85% of agricultural land has been improved by drainage (2003)
Total renewable water resources:49.9 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.25 cu km/yr (55%/33%/12%)
per capita: 108 cu m/yr (2003)
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:Latvia’s environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household, and hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution; in 2001, Latvia closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the east
Population:2,259,810 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 13.6% (male 157,451/female 150,184)
15-64 years: 69.6% (male 764,910/female 808,848)
65 years and over: 16.7% (male 123,952/female 254,465) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 39.6 years
male: 36.6 years
female: 42.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-0.648% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:9.43 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:13.64 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.946 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.487 male(s)/female
total population: 0.862 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 9.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.6 years
male: 66.39 years
female: 77.1 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.28 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.6% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:7,600 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Latvian(s)
adjective: Latvian
Ethnic groups:Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002)
Religions:Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages:Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2000 census)
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Latvia
conventional short form: Latvia
local long form: Latvijas Republika
local short form: Latvija
former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Riga
geographic coordinates: 56 57 N, 24 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:26 counties (singular – rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons
Independence:18 November 1918 (from Soviet Russia)
National holiday:Independence Day, 18 November (1918); note – 18 November 1918 was the date Latvia declared itself independent from Soviet Russia; 4 May 1990 is when it declared the renewal of independence; 21 August 1991 was the date of de facto independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:15 February 1922; restored to force by the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Latvia adopted by the Supreme Council on 21 August 1991; multiple amendments since
Legal system:based on civil law system with traces of Socialist legal traditions and practices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens
Executive branch:chief of state: President Valdis ZATLERS (since 8 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivars GODMANIS (since 20 December 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 May 2007 (next to be held 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament
election results: Valdis ZATLERS elected president; parliamentary vote – Valdis ZATLERS 58, Aivars ENDZINS 39
Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party – TP 19.5%, ZZS 16.7%, JL 16.4%, SC 14.4%; LPP/LC 8.6%; TB/LNNK 7%; PCTVL 6%; seats by party – TP 23, ZZS 18, JL 18, SC 17, LPP/LC 10, TB/LNNK 8, PCTVL 6; note – seats by party as of February 2008 – TP 21, ZZS 17, SC 17, JL 14, LPP/LC 10, TB/LNNK 5, PCTVL 6, independents 10
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges’ appointments are confirmed by Parliament); Constitutional Court (judges’ appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
Political parties and leaders:First Party of Latvia/Latvia’s Way or LPP/LC [Ainars SLESERS, Ivars GODMANIS]; For Human Rights in a United Latvia or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Latvian National Independence Movement or TB/LNNK [Roberts ZILE, Maris GRINBLATS]; Harmony Center or SC [Janis URBANOVICS, Nils USAKOVS]; Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Juris BOJARS]; Latvian Socialist Party or LSP [Alfreds RUBIKS]; New Democrats or JD [Maris GULBIS]; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE, Krisjanis KARINS]; People’s Party or TP [Aigars KALVITIS]; The Union of Latvian Greens and Farmers Party or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
International organization participation:Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Andrejs PILDEGOVICS
chancery: 2306 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2840
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2860
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Charles LARSON Jr.
embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV-1510
mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723
telephone: [371] 703-6200
FAX: [371] 782-0047
Flag description:three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon
Economy—overview:Latvia’s economy experienced GDP growth of more than 10% per year during 2006-07. The majority of companies, banks, and real estate have been privatized, although the state still holds sizable stakes in a few large enterprises. Latvia officially joined the World Trade Organization in February 1999. EU membership, a top foreign policy goal, came in May 2004. The current account deficit – more than 22% of GDP in 2007 – and inflation – at nearly 10% per year – remain major concerns.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$40.04 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$27 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:10.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$17,700 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 21.3%
services: 75.2% (2007 est.)
Labor force:1.136 million (2006 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 13%
industry: 19%
services: 68% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:5.9% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 29.1% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:37.7 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):35.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $8.975 billion
expenditures: $8.88 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:8.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Industries:buses, vans, street and railroad cars; synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note – dependent on imports for energy and raw materials
Industrial production growth rate:5.9% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:4.778 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:6.09 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:707 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:2.855 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:34,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:6,765 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:39,190 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:1.861 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:1.861 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:$-5.839 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$7.551 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports—partners:Lithuania 14.2%, Estonia 12.3%, Russia 11.5%, Germany 9.8%, UK 7.6%, Sweden 6.3%, Denmark 4.8% (2006)
Imports:$13.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles
Imports—partners:Germany 15.5%, Lithuania 12.9%, Russia 8%, Estonia 7.7%, Poland 7.2%, Finland 5.7%, Sweden 5%, Belarus 4.7% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$5.16 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$29.85 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$6.418 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$442 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$2.705 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$162 million (2004)
Currency (code):Latvian lat (LVL)
Exchange rates:lati per US dollar – 0.5162 (2007), 0.5597 (2006), 0.5647 (2005), 0.5402 (2004), 0.5715 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones—main lines in use:657,400 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:2.184 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as wireless telephony expands
domestic: number of telecommunications operators has grown rapidly since the fixed-line market opened to competition in 2003; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code – 371; the Latvian network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finland, and Sweden
Radio broadcast stations:AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:44 (plus 31 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country
Internet hosts:234,014 (2007)
Internet users:1.071 million (2006)
Airports:42 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 948 km; oil 82 km; refined products 415 km (2007)
Railways:total: 2,303 km
broad gauge: 2,270 km 1.520-m gauge (257 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 69,532 km
paved: 69,532 km (2004)
Waterways:300 km (2006)
Merchant marine:total: 22 ships (1000 GRT or over) 201,684 GRT/221,186 DWT
by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Estonia 1)
registered in other countries: 122 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Belize 14, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 1, Dominica 2, Jamaica 2, Liberia 15, Malta 36, Marshall Islands 10, Panama 5, Russia 2, St Kitts and Nevis 4, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Riga, Ventspils
Military branches:Latvian Republic Defense Force: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (Latvijas Gaisa Spelki), Border Guard, Latvian Home Guard (Latvijas Zemessardze) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished January 2007; under current law, every citizen is entitled to serve in the armed forces for life (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 19-49: 517,713
females age 19-49: 519,631 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 19-49: 361,098
females age 19-49: 422,913 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 19,137
females age 19-49: 18,505 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.2% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues
Disputes—international:Russia refuses to sign the 1997 boundary treaty due to Latvian insistence on a unilateral clarificatory declaration referencing Soviet occupation of Latvia and territorial losses; Russia demands better Latvian treatment of ethnic Russians in Latvia; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documentation in preparation; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU’s external border, Latvia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules with Russia
Illicit drugs:transshipment and destination point for cocaine, synthetic drugs, opiates, and cannabis from Southwest Asia, Western Europe, Latin America, and neighboring Balkan countries; despite improved legislation, vulnerable to money laundering due to nascent enforcement capabilities and comparatively weak regulation of offshore companies and the gaming industry; CIS organized crime (including counterfeiting, corruption, extortion, stolen cars, and prostitution) accounts for most laundered proceeds