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The World Factbook. 2008.

Norfolk Island

Flag of Norfolk Island                                Map of Norfolk Island
Background:Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.
Location:Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
Geographic coordinates:29 02 S, 167 57 E
Map references:Oceania
Area:total: 34.6 sq km
land: 34.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:32 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Bates 319 m
Natural resources:fish
Land use:arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:typhoons (especially May to July)
Environment—current issues:NA
Geography—note:most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
Population:2,114 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 20.2%
15-64 years: 63.9%
65 years and over: 15.9% (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.006% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:NA
Death rate:NA
Net migration rate:NA
Sex ratio:NA
Infant mortality rate:total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth:total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
Nationality:noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic groups:descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesian
Religions:Anglican 34.9%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 11.2%, Seventh-Day Adventist 2.8%, Australian Christian 2.4%, Jehovah’s Witness 0.9%, other 2.7%, unspecified 15.2%, none 18.1% (2001 census)
Languages:English (official), Norfolk – a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian
Country name:conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island
Dependency status:self governing territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Attorney-General’s Department
Government type:NA
Capital:name: Kingston
geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E
time difference: UTC+11.5 (16.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:none (territory of Australia)
Independence:none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)
Constitution:Norfolk Island Act of 1979, as amended in 2005
Legal system:based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator Grant TAMBLING (since 1 November 2003)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch:unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held by December 2007)
election results: seats – independents 9 (note – no political parties)
Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
Political parties and leaders:none
Political pressure groups and leaders:none
International organization participation:UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US:none (territory of Australia)
Flag description:three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band
Economy—overview:Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$NA
Labor force:NA
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 10%
industry and services: 90%
Budget:revenues: $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million (FY99/00)
Agriculture—products:Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry
Industries:tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
Electricity—production:NA kWh
Electricity—consumption:NA kWh
Exports:$1.5 million f.o.b. (FY91/92)
Exports—commodities:postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
Exports—partners:Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe (2006)
Imports:$17.9 million c.i.f. (FY91/92)
Imports—partners:Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$NA
Currency (code):Australian dollar (AUD)
Exchange rates:Australian dollars per US dollar – 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 July – 30 June
Telephones—main lines in use:2,532; note – a mix of analog (2500) and digital (32) circuits (2004)
Telephones—mobile cellular:0; note – proposed cellular service disallowed in August 2002 island referendum (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: adequate
domestic: free local calls
international: country code – 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:1 (local programming station plus 2 repeaters that air Australian programs by satellite) (2005)
Internet country
Internet hosts:96 (2007)
Internet users:700 (2002 est.)
Airports:1 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km (2002)
Ports and terminals:none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Military—note:defense is the responsibility of Australia
Transnational Issues