# 16·A doctor at a veterans hospital examines all of the patient records from 1983 to 2013 andfinds that twice as many men as women fell out of their hospital beds during their stay. This isput forward as evidence that men are clumsier than women. Discuss briefly, including:a.whether this is an experiment or an observational study (and why)b. providing an example of a possible confounding factor (and a clear explanation of why itis a possible confounding factor)what information you would want to see to examine the situation more closely.c.

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Step 1

Part (a):

The study is observational.

Here, the doctor examines the records for the years 1983 to 2013. The doctor has no control of the factors influencing a patient to fall out of their hospital bed. The doctor can simply observe the records of the hospital, without any real power to influence the outcome. Hence, the study is observational.

Step 2

Part (b):

The ratio of the number of male patients to the female patients may act as a confounding factor.

A factor that is not directly considered in the study, but has the potential to affect the conclusion of the study is a confounding factor.

The given data does not give an account of the gender-wise number of patients. It is possible that the number of male patients admitted to the hospital were much larger than that of the female patients, during the period of the study. If the number of male patients was much higher, then it is practically evident that more male patients would be more likely to fall out of their beds than female patients.

Step 3

Part (c):

A number of factors might affect the patients to fall out of their beds. For the reason explained in part (b), it is necessary to have information regarding the gender-wise number of patients admitted at the hospital during the period of study.

Age of the patient may also be effective. Younger patients are more likely to be over-confident about their health conditions, falling in an attempt to get out of bed unaided.

Moreover, it is also possible that the health conditions of the patients affected whether they fell out of their beds or not. For example, patients in a critical stage would make no a...

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