Science

PhysicsQ&A Library2. Force acting on thigh bone is 1800 N at compression causes longitudinal strain 3-103. Find effective cross-sectional area of bone, the value of Young's modulus take from table 1. Theory Let us consider the effect of a stretching force F applied to a bar (Fig. 1). The applied force is transmitted to every part of the body, and it tends to pull the material apart. This force, however, is resisted by the cohesive force that holds the material together. The material breaks when the applied force exceeds the cohesive force. If the force in Fig. 5.1 is reversed, the bar is compressed, and its length is reduced. Formulas 1. Tensile Stress o (N/m² or Pa) is the internal force per unit area acting on the material; it is defined as here F is the internal force acting on the body (N) H; A is the area on which the force is applied (m²). 2. Longitudinal (tensile) strain ɛ. The force applied to the bar in Fig. 1 causes the bar to elongate by an amount Al. The fractional change in length is called the longitudinal strain; that is, Al 1-l. Here l is the length of the bar (m), l, is initial length and Al is the change in the length due to the applied force. 3. Hooke's law. In 1676 Robert Hooke observed that while the body remains elastic, the ratio of stress to strain is constant (Hooke's law); that is, o = eY, here e is longitudinal strength and the constant of proportionality Y is called Young's modulus (Pa). Young's modulus has been measured for many materials (Table 1). 4. A Spring. A useful analogy can be drawn between a spring and the elastic properties of material. Consider the spring shown in Fig. 2. Equiliorium postion mgQuestion

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