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PhysicsQ&A Library2. Force acting on thigh bone is 1800 N at compression causes longitudinal strain 3-103. Findeffective cross-sectional area of bone, the value of Young's modulus take from table 1. TheoryLet us consider the effect of a stretching force F appliedto a bar (Fig. 1). The applied force is transmitted to everypart of the body, and it tends to pull the material apart.This force, however, is resisted by the cohesive force thatholds the material together. The material breaks whenthe applied force exceeds the cohesive force. If the force in Fig. 5.1 is reversed, the bar iscompressed, and its length is reduced.Formulas1. Tensile Stress o (N/m² or Pa) is the internal force per unit area acting on the material; it isdefined ashere F is the internal force acting on the body (N) H; A is the area on which the force isapplied (m²).2. Longitudinal (tensile) strain ɛ. The force applied to the bar in Fig. 1 causes the bar to elongateby an amount Al. The fractional change in length is called the longitudinal strain; that is,Al1-l.Here l is the length of the bar (m), l, is initial length and Al is the change in the length due to theapplied force.3. Hooke's law. In 1676 Robert Hooke observed that while the body remains elastic, the ratio ofstress to strain is constant (Hooke's law); that is,o = eY,here e is longitudinal strength and the constant of proportionality Y is called Young's modulus(Pa). Young's modulus has been measured for many materials (Table 1).4. A Spring. A useful analogy can be drawn between a spring and the elastic properties ofmaterial. Consider the spring shown in Fig. 2.EquilioriumpostionmgQuestion

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