3:29 PM Wed Oct 30 Аa 4 There must be a minimum size below which offspring have no chance of survival. As offspring get larger, their probability of surviving rises. If survival probability approaches one, it must do so in a saturating fashion, because survival probability cannot exceed one. A graph depicting this assumption appears in Figure 13.31 b. Again, we have used arbitrary units. The shape of the curve may vary from species to species. Here we have used the equation 1 Survival size Given the two assumptions, the analysis is simple: The expected fitness of a parent producing offspring of a particular size is the number of such offspring the parent can make multiplied by the probability that any individual offspring will survive. A plot of expected parental fitness versus offspring size, which appears in Figure 13.31 c, reveals the size of offspring that gives the highest parental fitness. For example, given the equations and units used here, if a parent makes offspring of size 5, it can make two of them. Each has a probability of survival of 0.8. Thus, the expected fitness gained by the parent from this clutch is 2 x 0.8 = 1.6 The optimal offspring size depends on the shapes of the relationships for offspring number versus size and offspring survival versus size. Often (though not always), the optimal offspring size is intermediate. In our example, parental fitness is 518 Reader Notebook Bookmarks Contents More K !! Ш

Question

How Big Should Each Offspring Be?

Can you please use examples for the reading, 

3:29 PM Wed Oct 30
Аa 4
There must be a
minimum size below which offspring have no chance of survival.
As offspring get larger, their probability of surviving rises. If
survival probability approaches one, it must do so in a saturating
fashion, because survival probability cannot exceed one. A graph
depicting this assumption appears in Figure 13.31 b. Again,
we have used arbitrary units. The shape of the curve may vary
from species to species. Here we have used the equation
1
Survival
size
Given the two assumptions, the analysis is simple: The expected
fitness of a parent producing offspring of a particular size is the
number of such offspring the parent can make multiplied by the
probability that any individual offspring will survive. A plot of
expected parental fitness versus offspring size, which appears in
Figure 13.31 c, reveals the size of offspring that gives the
highest parental fitness. For example, given the equations and
units used here, if a parent makes offspring of size 5, it can make
two of them. Each has a probability of survival of 0.8. Thus, the
expected fitness gained by the parent from this clutch is 2 x 0.8 =
1.6
The optimal offspring size depends on the shapes of the
relationships for offspring number versus size and offspring
survival versus size. Often (though not always), the optimal
offspring size is intermediate. In our example, parental fitness is
518
Reader
Notebook
Bookmarks
Contents
More
K
!!
Ш
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3:29 PM Wed Oct 30 Аa 4 There must be a minimum size below which offspring have no chance of survival. As offspring get larger, their probability of surviving rises. If survival probability approaches one, it must do so in a saturating fashion, because survival probability cannot exceed one. A graph depicting this assumption appears in Figure 13.31 b. Again, we have used arbitrary units. The shape of the curve may vary from species to species. Here we have used the equation 1 Survival size Given the two assumptions, the analysis is simple: The expected fitness of a parent producing offspring of a particular size is the number of such offspring the parent can make multiplied by the probability that any individual offspring will survive. A plot of expected parental fitness versus offspring size, which appears in Figure 13.31 c, reveals the size of offspring that gives the highest parental fitness. For example, given the equations and units used here, if a parent makes offspring of size 5, it can make two of them. Each has a probability of survival of 0.8. Thus, the expected fitness gained by the parent from this clutch is 2 x 0.8 = 1.6 The optimal offspring size depends on the shapes of the relationships for offspring number versus size and offspring survival versus size. Often (though not always), the optimal offspring size is intermediate. In our example, parental fitness is 518 Reader Notebook Bookmarks Contents More K !! Ш

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