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6.some of the children given a new flu vaccine later develop a neurological disease. Parents claim the vaccine caused the disease. What are the two possible statistical explanations for this result?

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6.some of the children given a new flu vaccine later develop a neurological disease. Parents claim the vaccine caused the disease. What are the two possible statistical explanations for this result?

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Step 1

Introduction:

Association and causation:

Association:

Consider two variables, say, X and Y. These will be considered to be “associated”, if any of the following is observed:

  • An increase occurs in the values of X and Y simultaneously;
  • When an increase occurs in the value of X a decrease occurs in the value of Y;
  • When an increase occurs in the value of Y a decrease occurs in the value of X.

Note that, this increase-increase or increase-decrease relationship is merely an observation. Such an observation simply suggests that X and Y are somehow related; it does not indicate anything about how they are related.

Causation:

The two variables, X and Y would ...

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