Question

6.some of the children given a new flu vaccine later develop a neurological disease. Parents claim the vaccine caused the disease. What are the two possible statistical explanations for this result?

Step 1

**Introduction:**

Association and causation:

*Association:*

Consider two variables, say, *X* and *Y*. These will be considered to be “associated”, if any of the following is observed:

- An increase occurs in the values of
*X*and*Y*simultaneously; - When an increase occurs in the value of
*X*a decrease occurs in the value of*Y*; - When an increase occurs in the value of
*Y*a decrease occurs in the value of*X*.

Note that, this increase-increase or increase-decrease relationship is merely an observation. Such an observation simply suggests that *X* and *Y* are somehow related; it does not indicate anything about how they are related.

*Causation:*

The two variables, *X* and *Y* would ...

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