According to my study guide text book, the thyroid's response to hypersecretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone is metaplasia, dysplasia and/or deoplasia, but the gall bladder hypertrophies with the development of gallstones and the liver experiences hyperplaisa in response to prolonged drug intoxication. I am not understanding why these cellular adaptations occur. To me, it seems like teach organ is having to work harder, and would either hypertrophy or hyperplasia.

Question
Asked Feb 24, 2019

According to my study guide text book, the thyroid's response to hypersecretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone is metaplasia, dysplasia and/or deoplasia, but the gall bladder hypertrophies with the development of gallstones and the liver experiences hyperplaisa in response to prolonged drug intoxication. I am not understanding why these cellular adaptations occur. To me, it seems like teach organ is having to work harder, and would either hypertrophy or hyperplasia. 

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Step 1

The question asks about the reasons, whether the organ work harder and would be either hypertrophy or hyperplasia for the cellular adaptations occurring during the following two stages:

  1. The thyroid's response to hypersecretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone is metaplasia, dysplasia and/or neoplasia.
  2. The gall bladder hypertrophies with the development of gallstones and hyperplasia of the liver in response to the prolonged drug intoxication.
Step 2

Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH is a pituitary hormone which excites the thyroid gland. In response, the thyroid glands then produce thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). These T3 and T4 stimulates metabolism of every tissue in the body.

Metaplasia is a type of abnormal modification in the nature of tissue. This modification occurs due to some kind of abnormal stimulus. These changes are usually seen as a premalignant condition as it linked with cancer. For example, in the case of hypersecretion of TSH. The thyroid gland responds to this stimulus by the formation of metaplasia. When cells of thyroid gland face physiological stress, they start to respond to it by showing the cellular adaptations like metaplasia. It is a benign (non-cancerous) change.

In this stage, one type of epithelium tissue is replaced with another so that it can be able to withstand against the stress of TSH hypersecretion. It is then followed by an endothelial function loss. In some cases, these regions can change to develop dysplasia. Dysplasia is an abnormal growth or development of some tissue or organ. If the physiological stimulus is still persisting, then can cause malignant neoplasia (cancer). Neoplasia is the existence or formation of new and abnormal tissue growth from the preexisting one. So, this is the cellular adaptation which is shown by the thyroid gland. These occur in response to the physiological stress on the cells.

Step 3

Gallstones are a type of hard stone-like structures of material (bilirubin or cholesterol). These formed in within the gallbladder. For dissolving these stones, the person has to take a prolonged drug treatment. These drugs show in-toxification. The prolonged medication results in an antagonistic reaction on the body like gallbladder and liver hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Hypertrophy is the expansion of tissue or an organ due to the enlargement of its component cells. Hyper...

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