Asked Mar 1, 2019

Choose one diagnosis and expand on its effects on digestion: oral cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, cancer of the duodenum, colon cancer, end-stage alcoholism with cirrhosis.


Expert Answer

Step 1

Cells are the basic units of life. Cells divide to grow and produce new cells. The cell division is done in a very sequential manner and under control. There are various proteins or other biomolecules in the body to keep a check on the cell cycle, and these are termed as cell cycle checkpoints. They keep a check on the cell cycle by allowing the cells to divide in the proper amount and to check whether the DNA is replicated correctly. Further, apoptosis, programmed cell death, is the process in which the cell dies. Apoptosis also keeps a check on the cell division. If the proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoints or apoptosis are mutated, then it may be possible that the cells may keep on divide continuously. This may lead to the formation of tumors or cancer. Tumors are cancerous cells that are present around the tissue or organ only. And the other is metastasis cancer in which the cancerous cells are spread in the whole body by the circulatory system. Cancer can be diagnosed at any stage.

Step 2

Cancer is of many types. Here we will discuss the diagnosis of the given cancers and their effects on the digestive system of the body.

  • Oral cancer- it develops in the tissues of mouth or throat. It is mainly developed in the squamous cells of the mouth, tongue, and lips. This cancer is discovered when it has been developed in the lymph nodes of the neck. Symptoms of oral cancers are the lump in the neck, loose teeth, mass of cells anywhere in the mouth, continuous weight loss, pain in swallowing, and sore throat.
    1. Diagnosis- it can easily be diagnosed by tissue biopsy. In this technique, the cells are collected from the tumor and then examined under the microscope for the presence of tumor cells. Further for the confirmation CT scan, X rays, and PET scan is done. By these techniques, it can be seen up to where and how much the cells are spread.
    2. Oral cancer can cause certain complications in the digestive system. The foremost complication is difficulty in swallowing of food due to the pain. Further, it can also cause choking due to the wrong passage for the food.
Step 3
  • Esophageal cancer- esophagus is the hollow tube running from the throat to the stomach. Its function is to transfer the food from the throat to the stomach for the digestion. Cancer in the esophagus is termed as esophageal cancer. It is caused due to tobacco, alcohol, or wrong eating habits. Its symptoms are difficulty in swallowing, weight loss, chest pain, heartburn, and coughing.
    1. Diagnosis- it can be diagnosed by endoscopy and biopsy. In endoscopy, the flexible tube with a video lens is passed down...

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