Asked Jan 6, 2020

Describe the basic way that each device detects radioactivity: (a) film-badge dosimeter; (b) Geiger-Müller counter; and (c) scintillation counter.


Expert Answer

Step 1

Film-badge dosimeter:

It contains crystals of salts, such as calcium fluoride, that are excited by ionizing radiation.  The excited electrons are trapped by impurities that are intentionally introduced into the crystals.  When these crystals are heated, the electrons relax to their ground state and emit light.  The amount of light emitted is proportional to the radiation exposure.

Step 2

Geiger-Muller counter:

In this instrument, particle emitted by radioactive nuclei pass through an argon-filled chamber.  The energetic particle creates a tail of ionized argon atoms.  An applied high voltage between a wire within the chamber and the chamber itself causes these newly formed i...

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