Asked Nov 19, 2019

describe the functions of intestinal hormones and paracrines


Expert Answer

Step 1

The intestine:

It is a long and continuous tube that runs from the end of stomach to the anus. Most of the absorption of nutrients and water takes place in the intestines. The intestines consist of the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. The duodenum is the initial region of the small intestine. It is followed by the jejunum and ileum.

Step 2

The major hormones released by the intestinal region and their function are as follows:

  1. Gastrin:

It is a peptide hormone. It stimulates the release of HCl (gastric acid) by the parietal cells of the stomach. It helps in the gastric motility. It is secreted by the G cells of the stomach, duodenum and the pancreas.

  1. Cholecystokinin:

It is also known as CCK. It is a peptide hormone. Cholecystokinin is produced and released by the entero-endocrine cells in the duodenum.  It is responsible for the stimulation of the digestion of protein and fat. It triggers the secretion of bile and digestive enzymes from the gallbladder and pancreas, respectively.  It also behaves as a hunger suppressant.

  1. Secretin:

It is a peptide hormone. It is produced in the duodenum in the intestinal glands.

It triggers the production of bile by the liver. The bile then emulsifies the fats in the duodenum and facilitates the action of pancreatic lipase upon the emulsified fats.

It is a hormone which regulates the homeostasis of water throughout the body. It aids in the regulation of the pH of duodenum as:

(1) It inhibits the release of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach.

(2) It stimulates the production of bicarbonate from the pancreatic duct cells.


Step 3


It is a term that relates to a hormone which influence only in the area of the gland releasing it.

Basically, these are chemical signals that produce specific functions...

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