Asked Dec 11, 2019

Describe the movements of chromosomes during the states of meiosis to produce sperm and eggs?


Expert Answer

Step 1

Meiosis is the process mainly used for the production of sex cells like female egg and sperm. In the meiosis process, haploid cells are produced from a diploid cell. Meiosis occurs in special cells called germ cells within the gonads of males and females. The reduction in the number of chromosomes to occur in the new haploid daughter cells. Two rounds of division are necessary these divisions are termed meiosis one and meiosis two.

Step 2

The process of mitosis and meiosis look similar until the beginning of prophase. During prophase 1 when homologous pairs of sister chromatids lie side by side in a process called synapses.

Once this structure formed the second event called crossing over can occur. During crossing over a physical exchange between chromosomes segments of non-sister chromatids occurs increasing genetic diversity. Prophase one concludes with the fragmentation of the nuclear envelope as the duplicated central pairs move to opposite poles of the cell as they move the centrioles extend spindle forming the mitotic spindle.

Step 3

In prometaphase one with the paired centrioles in place, the mitotic spindle is fully formed. The sister chromatids attached to the spindle fibers by their kinetic cores. Homologous chromosomes remain aligned so that a pair of sister chromatids are attached to one pole by kinetochore microtubules.

During metaphase 1 chromosomes randomly aligned along with the metaphase plate. Due to independent assortments, this alignment is random and adds to genetic diversity in anaphase 1 the homologous chromosomes separate and move toward opposite poles.

Meiosis 1 ends with telophase1 when the chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope reform. Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasmic...

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