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Asked Nov 18, 2019
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Discuss how CRISPR-cas functions as a genome editing tool.

 

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Expert Answer

Step 1

Genome editing:

It is also known as gene editing or genome engineering. It is a type of genetic engineering. In this editing, the DNA is commonly inserted, deleted, altered or replaced in a living organism genome.

Various gene editing techniques (such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases, CRISPR-Cas systems, TALENs and zinc-finger nucleases have been developed to get a progress in the gene targeting methods.

Step 2

CRISPR-Cas or CRISPR-associated protein systems:

It is a type of genome editing tool. It is cheaper, faster and more precise than the preceding techniques of the editing DNA. It has a broad array of the potential applications.

Step 3

The CRISPR-Cas system functions as a genome editing tool because of:

  1. The presence of two main molecules:

The CRISPR-Cas system has two chief molecules which leads to a mutation into the DNA.

These molecules are given as follows:

a). An enzyme:

It is known as Cas.

This enzyme acts as a pair of molecular scissors. These scissors can split the two DNA strands at a precise location of the genome. This produces the fragments of DNA. These DNA fragments can then be removed or added.

  1. b) A piece of RNA:

I...

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