Environmental Engineering, disaggregation exponential growth question:Consider the following disaggregation of carbon emissions:Carbon emissions (kg C/year)= [Population] x [Energy (kJ/year/person)] x [Carbon (kg C/Energy (kJ)]Using the following estimates for the United States and assuming growth rates remain constant, 1990 amounts:Population: 2.5 x 108, growth rate: 0.6%Energy: 3.2 x 108 kJ/yr/person, growth rate: 0.5%Carbon emissions: 1.5 x 10-5 kg C/kJ, growth rate: -0.3%Find:a) The carbon emission rate in 2020b) The carbon emitted in those 30 yearsc) The total energy demand in 2020d) the per capita carbon emission rate in 2020

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Asked Sep 29, 2019
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Environmental Engineering, disaggregation exponential growth question:

Consider the following disaggregation of carbon emissions:

Carbon emissions (kg C/year)= [Population] x [Energy (kJ/year/person)] x [Carbon (kg C/Energy (kJ)]

Using the following estimates for the United States and assuming growth rates remain constant, 

1990 amounts:

  • Population: 2.5 x 108, growth rate: 0.6%
  • Energy: 3.2 x 108 kJ/yr/person, growth rate: 0.5%
  • Carbon emissions: 1.5 x 10-5 kg C/kJ, growth rate: -0.3%

Find:

a) The carbon emission rate in 2020

b) The carbon emitted in those 30 years

c) The total energy demand in 2020

d) the per capita carbon emission rate in 2020

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Expert Answer

Step 1

We have been given the following data for year 1990:

 

Amounts in 1990

Growth rate (r) in %/yr

Population

2.5×108

0.6

(KJ/yr)/person

3.2×108

0.5

Kg C/KJ

1.5×10-5

-0.3

Step 2

Calculating combined growth rate:

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r (carbon perenergy)+(energy per person)+( population) (-0.3)+(0.6)+(0.5) =0.8% perannum

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Step 3
  • Calculating the carbon emission rate in 2020:...
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Substituting values in above formula [Population] Carben emissions (kg Cyear) =[Energy (Wyear person)]x X X rCarbon (kg C Energy (kJ)] 1990 Carbon emission= {2.5x10°]*[3.2x10]»*[1.5x10 ] = 1.2x10kg Cyr

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