# For each item listed please indicate whether each item is a: (S) Stimulus = something that happens TO the person/animal (R) Response = behavior performed BY the person/animal What are each of the following? A flashing light A stop sign Answering this practice exercise An ant crawling on your arm Vomiting Screaming Coughing  The sound of heavy breathing Seeing and smelling a piece of chocolate cake Bad tasting medicine  Laughing A feather tickling your arm   B)  Types of reinforcement and punishment exercise In learning theory, remember that positive means adding something and negative means removing something. Reinforcement will increase the likelihood of a response in the future; punishment will decrease the likelihood of a response in the future. Read each of the following scenarios and indicate whether each scenario represents either: (PR) Positive Reinforcement (NR) Negative Reinforcement (PP) Positive Punishment (NP) Negative Punishment What are each of the following? Jimmy's father gives him \$5 for washing the car. Maria was fighting with her sister. Her mother says she can't watch TV tonight. Keila is 4 years old. Her mother spanks her for running out into the street. Steve’s parents don't allow him to use the family car for 2 weeks after he received a "D" in his high school chemistry class. Lelani always puts on her seat belt so that the annoying buzzer will stop. Riley's father says "I'm proud of you" after Riley volunteers to help residents of the local retirement home. Charlie is assigned 10 hours of trash pickup after being caught smoking in the campus library restroom. Your teacher says you don't have to take the final exam if you have a "B" average at the end of the semester.   C)  Schedules of reinforcement exercise For each of the following indicate what schedule of reinforcement is depicted (see the text for the definitions of each of the following).  Each item should have only one answer. (C) Continuous (FI) Fixed Interval (VI) Variable Interval (FR) Fixed Ratio (VR) Variable Ratio What type of schedules are the following? Teri collects empty soda cans. The recycling center gives her \$1 for every 30 cans. You get a pay check every Tuesday. A psychologist gives a rat a food pellet each time it pushes a lever in its cage. You go fishing in the Chesapeake Bay every weekend. Sometimes it takes 1 hour to catch a fish, sometimes 15 minutes, sometimes 45 minutes. You go to Atlantic City and play the slot machines. Sometimes you win money after putting in 3 quarters, sometimes after 15 quarters, sometimes after putting in 7 quarters. You start playing the lottery. You win \$10 the first time you play. You play 12 more times before you win again. A college student's mother sends her a box of fudge every Thursday. George works in a factory putting fenders on cars. He gets paid \$100 for every 4 fenders he finishes. Michael's mother gives him an M & M for each toy he puts away in his toy box. Shaina delivers newspapers in her neighborhood. Sometimes Mrs. Lewis pays her for 2 weeks at a time, sometimes she pays for 1 week, and sometimes she pays for a month.

Question

For each item listed please indicate whether each item is a:

• (S) Stimulus = something that happens TO the person/animal
• (R) Response = behavior performed BY the person/animal

What are each of the following?

1. A flashing light
2. A stop sign
4. An ant crawling on your arm
5. Vomiting
6. Screaming
7. Coughing
8. The sound of heavy breathing
9. Seeing and smelling a piece of chocolate cake
11. Laughing
12. A feather tickling your arm

B)  Types of reinforcement and punishment exercise

In learning theory, remember that positive means adding something and negative means removing something. Reinforcement will increase the likelihood of a response in the future; punishment will decrease the likelihood of a response in the future.

Read each of the following scenarios and indicate whether each scenario represents either:

• (PR) Positive Reinforcement
• (NR) Negative Reinforcement
• (PP) Positive Punishment
• (NP) Negative Punishment

What are each of the following?

1. Jimmy's father gives him \$5 for washing the car.
2. Maria was fighting with her sister. Her mother says she can't watch TV tonight.
3. Keila is 4 years old. Her mother spanks her for running out into the street.
4. Steve’s parents don't allow him to use the family car for 2 weeks after he received a "D" in his high school chemistry class.
5. Lelani always puts on her seat belt so that the annoying buzzer will stop.
6. Riley's father says "I'm proud of you" after Riley volunteers to help residents of the local retirement home.
7. Charlie is assigned 10 hours of trash pickup after being caught smoking in the campus library restroom.
8. Your teacher says you don't have to take the final exam if you have a "B" average at the end of the semester.

C)  Schedules of reinforcement exercise

For each of the following indicate what schedule of reinforcement is depicted (see the text for the definitions of each of the following).  Each item should have only one answer.

• (C) Continuous
• (FI) Fixed Interval
• (VI) Variable Interval
• (FR) Fixed Ratio
• (VR) Variable Ratio

What type of schedules are the following?

1. Teri collects empty soda cans. The recycling center gives her \$1 for every 30 cans.
2. You get a pay check every Tuesday.
3. A psychologist gives a rat a food pellet each time it pushes a lever in its cage.
4. You go fishing in the Chesapeake Bay every weekend. Sometimes it takes 1 hour to catch a fish, sometimes 15 minutes, sometimes 45 minutes.
5. You go to Atlantic City and play the slot machines. Sometimes you win money after putting in 3 quarters, sometimes after 15 quarters, sometimes after putting in 7 quarters.
6. You start playing the lottery. You win \$10 the first time you play. You play 12 more times before you win again.
7. A college student's mother sends her a box of fudge every Thursday.
8. George works in a factory putting fenders on cars. He gets paid \$100 for every 4 fenders he finishes.
9. Michael's mother gives him an M & M for each toy he puts away in his toy box.
10. Shaina delivers newspapers in her neighborhood. Sometimes Mrs. Lewis pays her for 2 weeks at a time, sometimes she pays for 1 week, and sometimes she pays for a month.