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How can a target cell respond to multiple hormones at the same time?

Question

How can a target cell respond to multiple hormones at the same time?

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Step 1

The questions ask how a target cell can respond to more than one hormone at the same time.

Step 2

The hormone is a chemical regulatory material which is produced in an organism. It is transported in the tissue fluids like sap or blood and aids as messengers, coordinating and controlling actions through the body. These affect the functioning of another body part (target site). Endocrine glands help in the secretion of the hormones straight into the bloodstream. Though, a hormone generally affects only a restricted number of cells. These are known as target cells. A target cell show response to a hormone as it has functional receptors for the hormone.

Step 3

A target cell sometimes may have the influence of multiple hormones at the same time. These can interact in the following ways by knowing the separate effects of the hormone. In this section, we study three types of interaction of hormones with a target cell: synergism, permissiveness, and antagonism.

  1. Permissiveness: It is a situation in which a hormone does not apply its complete effect if the other hormone is absent. For illustration, thyroid hormones raise the availability of receptors for epinephrine at its target cell, thus increasing the effect of epinephrine at that specific cell. In the absence of thyroid hormones, epinephrine will show a weak effect.
  2. Synergism is a condition which takes place when two or more hormones s...

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