Inorganic phosphorous is a naturally occurring element in all plants and animals, with concentrations increasing progressively up the food chain (fruit < vegetables < cereals < nuts < corpse). Geochemical surveys take soil samples to determine phosphorous content (in ppm, parts per million). A high phosphorous content may or may not indicate an ancient burial site, food storage site, or even a garbage dump. The Hill of Tara is a very important archaeological site in Ireland. It is by legend the seat of Ireland's ancient high kings†. Independent random samples from two regions in Tara gave the following phosphorous measurements (ppm). Assume the population distributions of phosphorous are mound-shaped and symmetric for these two regions.

Region I: x1; n1 = 12

540

810

790

790

340

800

890

860

820

640

970

720

Region II: x2; n2 = 16

750

870

700

810

965

350

895

850

635

955

710

890

520

650

280

993

(a) Use a calculator with mean and standard deviation keys to calculate x1, s1, x2, and s2. (Round your answers to one decimal place.)

x1

=

ppm

s1

=

ppm

x2

=

ppm

s2

=

ppm

(b) Let μ1 be the population mean for x1 and let μ2 be the population mean for x2. Find an 85% confidence interval for μ1 − μ2.

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