O 2 AOSearchDiscussion #11-How Fast -Fall 19.docxAutoSaveosvaldo lima OLInsertReferencesShareFileHomeDesignLayoutMailingsReviewViewHelpComments11 I 2 I 3 I 4 5 6 7.LThat is, the average speed of "smashed into" group is significantly higher than the "hitgroup are equalPSY 3211 Research Methods and Design I-Discussion #11- How Fast?Instructions: In 1974, Loftus and Palmer conducted a classic study demonstrating how thelanguage used to ask a question can influence eyewitness memory. In the study, college studentswatched a film of an automobile accident and then were asked questions about what they saw.One group was asked, "About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?"Another group was asked the same question except the verb was changed to "hit" instead of"smashed into." The "smashed into" group reported significantly higher estimates of speed thanthe "hit" group. You, as a researcher wonder if Loftus and Palmer's study is reliable and repeatsthis study with a sample of FIU students and obtains the following data2. Tell me your level of riskThe level of risk will be 05Hit GroupSmashed Into Group3. Determine the best statistical test to use28462241Since we are looking at two groups, the best test statistic to use is the t-Test for3651independent samples.323638414. Compute the test statistic. (Note: You can use the table below to help you calculate yourSD, which will be important later when you write up your means and SDs)!39373346X-M(х- М)3731(X-MX-мHitSmashed3235Into255212.602528-3.310.89463.552.1025225522-9.34.786.4941-1.458.55-6.45275036323822.095173.102541.60250.4922410.76.73644.8941-1.452.102529.702512.6025131.1032539-5.457.759.2939373247331.72.8932.49463.552645375.73135-11.45-7453632320.70.4955.5025354191.202525-6.339.69529.55463922-9.386.495512.55157.5034037274.318.49507.5557.002586.4939.69-1.45-3.4522-9.32.10254139Your job is to determine if smashed into group reports higher speed than hit group. As you workon this problem, make sure to provide information for each of the eight steps we cover inChapter 11 (Salkind) as well as the APA write-up you would see in a results section11.902525-6.3320.70.49474.5520.702526-5.328.09452.556.5025364.722.09324146-10.45109.2032.102512.602529.70251.State the null and alternative hypothesesNull HypothesesH0 μ1- μ2That is, the average speed of "smashed into" group and hit" group are equal.13.6959.29353.77.7-1.45393.55406268.775.6937-5.45849860.95M-31.342.45n-1Variance191938.43166.1993245.31315789Alternative HypothesesH1: l2SD6.731504876FocusPage 1 of 447 of 901 words100%1:07 PMPC AutoSave Off) AOSearchDiscussion #11 - How Fast -Fall 19.docxosvaldo lima OLInsertReferencesHelpShareFileHomeDesignLayoutMailingsReviewViewComments11 I 2 3 I 4 I 5. I 6 7 .9. Finally, write up your results as you would see it in a results section of an empiricalresearch paper. Make sure to include the means and SDs for smashed into and hit group(in miles). I do NOT need to see the effect size (Cohen's D)5.455. Determine the value needed to reject the null hypothesis. Remember to calculate thecorrect degrees of freedom before finding the critical t-value! Note whether it is best to10. Was your obtained t-value positive or negative? Would it matter either way? With yourdiscussion group, tell my why a positive or negative value is not important when it comesuse the one-tailed or two-tailed test.to your obtained valueThe value needed to reject the null hypothesis is 5.45.The degree of freedom for finding the critical value (tm-2)20+20-211. What is more appropriate to use for your data set: the one-tailed 1-Test or the two-tailed -=38Test. Why? Would your APA write-up differ depending on which you used?The level of significance is not provided so it can be assumed as 0.05The critical value at level of significance 0.05 with 38 degree of freedom from the t-valuetable (one tailed) is 1.686.12. Why would it be easier to find significance using ap value of 05 than a p value of .01?6. Compare the obtained and critical valueThe obtained value t is 5.45 and the critical value is to2, al#n2.2 = 1.68613. Finally (and this is the tough one), how would your results have differed with regard tosteps 4 through 9 if you had used n rather than n-1?The obtained value is greater than the critical value..7. Decide whether you will retain the null hypothesis orAs, the absolute value oft is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis isrejected.Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into"group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group.8. Decide whether you will reject the null hypothesisAs, the absolute value of t is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis isrejected.Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into"group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group.DFocus47 of 901 words100%Page 4 of 41:12 PMPC

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12.Why would it be easier to find significance using a p value of .05 than a p value of .01?

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That is, the average speed of "smashed into" group is significantly higher than the "hit
group are equal
PSY 3211 Research Methods and Design I-Discussion #11- How Fast?
Instructions: In 1974, Loftus and Palmer conducted a classic study demonstrating how the
language used to ask a question can influence eyewitness memory. In the study, college students
watched a film of an automobile accident and then were asked questions about what they saw.
One group was asked, "About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?"
Another group was asked the same question except the verb was changed to "hit" instead of
"smashed into." The "smashed into" group reported significantly higher estimates of speed than
the "hit" group. You, as a researcher wonder if Loftus and Palmer's study is reliable and repeats
this study with a sample of FIU students and obtains the following data
2. Tell me your level of risk
The level of risk will be 05
Hit Group
Smashed Into Group
3. Determine the best statistical test to use
28
46
22
41
Since we are looking at two groups, the best test statistic to use is the t-Test for
36
51
independent samples.
32
36
38
41
4. Compute the test statistic. (Note: You can use the table below to help you calculate your
SD, which will be important later when you write up your means and SDs)!
39
37
33
46
X-M
(х- М)
37
31
(X-M
X-м
Hit
Smashed
32
35
Into
25
52
12.6025
28
-3.3
10.89
46
3.55
2.1025
22
55
22
-9.3
4.7
86.49
41
-1.45
8.55
-6.45
27
50
36
32
38
22.09
51
73.1025
41.6025
0.49
22
41
0.7
6.7
36
44.89
41
-1.45
2.1025
29.7025
12.6025
131.103
25
39
-5.45
7.7
59.29
39
37
32
47
33
1.7
2.89
32.49
46
3.55
26
45
37
5.7
31
35
-11.45
-745
36
32
32
0.7
0.49
55.5025
35
41
91.2025
25
-6.3
39.69
52
9.55
46
39
22
-9.3
86.49
55
12.55
157.503
40
37
27
4.3
18.49
50
7.55
57.0025
86.49
39.69
-1.45
-3.45
22
-9.3
2.1025
41
39
Your job is to determine if smashed into group reports higher speed than hit group. As you work
on this problem, make sure to provide information for each of the eight steps we cover in
Chapter 11 (Salkind) as well as the APA write-up you would see in a results section
11.9025
25
-6.3
32
0.7
0.49
47
4.55
20.7025
26
-5.3
28.09
45
2.55
6.5025
36
4.7
22.09
32
41
46
-10.45
109.203
2.1025
12.6025
29.7025
1.
State the null and alternative hypotheses
Null Hypotheses
H0 μ1- μ2
That is, the average speed of "smashed into" group and hit" group are equal.
13.69
59.29
35
3.7
7.7
-1.45
39
3.55
40
626
8.7
75.69
37
-5.45
849
860.95
M-
31.3
42.45
n-1
Variance
19
19
38.4316
6.19932
45.31315789
Alternative Hypotheses
H1: l2
SD
6.731504876
Focus
Page 1 of 4
47 of 901 words
100%
1:07 PM
PC
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Image Transcriptionclose

O 2 A OSearch Discussion #11-How Fast -Fall 19.docx AutoSave osvaldo lima OL Insert References Share File Home Design Layout Mailings Review View Help Comments 1 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 5 6 7. L That is, the average speed of "smashed into" group is significantly higher than the "hit group are equal PSY 3211 Research Methods and Design I-Discussion #11- How Fast? Instructions: In 1974, Loftus and Palmer conducted a classic study demonstrating how the language used to ask a question can influence eyewitness memory. In the study, college students watched a film of an automobile accident and then were asked questions about what they saw. One group was asked, "About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?" Another group was asked the same question except the verb was changed to "hit" instead of "smashed into." The "smashed into" group reported significantly higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group. You, as a researcher wonder if Loftus and Palmer's study is reliable and repeats this study with a sample of FIU students and obtains the following data 2. Tell me your level of risk The level of risk will be 05 Hit Group Smashed Into Group 3. Determine the best statistical test to use 28 46 22 41 Since we are looking at two groups, the best test statistic to use is the t-Test for 36 51 independent samples. 32 36 38 41 4. Compute the test statistic. (Note: You can use the table below to help you calculate your SD, which will be important later when you write up your means and SDs)! 39 37 33 46 X-M (х- М) 37 31 (X-M X-м Hit Smashed 32 35 Into 25 52 12.6025 28 -3.3 10.89 46 3.55 2.1025 22 55 22 -9.3 4.7 86.49 41 -1.45 8.55 -6.45 27 50 36 32 38 22.09 51 73.1025 41.6025 0.49 22 41 0.7 6.7 36 44.89 41 -1.45 2.1025 29.7025 12.6025 131.103 25 39 -5.45 7.7 59.29 39 37 32 47 33 1.7 2.89 32.49 46 3.55 26 45 37 5.7 31 35 -11.45 -745 36 32 32 0.7 0.49 55.5025 35 41 91.2025 25 -6.3 39.69 52 9.55 46 39 22 -9.3 86.49 55 12.55 157.503 40 37 27 4.3 18.49 50 7.55 57.0025 86.49 39.69 -1.45 -3.45 22 -9.3 2.1025 41 39 Your job is to determine if smashed into group reports higher speed than hit group. As you work on this problem, make sure to provide information for each of the eight steps we cover in Chapter 11 (Salkind) as well as the APA write-up you would see in a results section 11.9025 25 -6.3 32 0.7 0.49 47 4.55 20.7025 26 -5.3 28.09 45 2.55 6.5025 36 4.7 22.09 32 41 46 -10.45 109.203 2.1025 12.6025 29.7025 1. State the null and alternative hypotheses Null Hypotheses H0 μ1- μ2 That is, the average speed of "smashed into" group and hit" group are equal. 13.69 59.29 35 3.7 7.7 -1.45 39 3.55 40 626 8.7 75.69 37 -5.45 849 860.95 M- 31.3 42.45 n-1 Variance 19 19 38.4316 6.19932 45.31315789 Alternative Hypotheses H1: l2 SD 6.731504876 Focus Page 1 of 4 47 of 901 words 100% 1:07 PM PC

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osvaldo lima OL
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1
1 I 2 3 I 4 I 5. I 6 7 .
9. Finally, write up your results as you would see it in a results section of an empirical
research paper. Make sure to include the means and SDs for smashed into and hit group
(in miles). I do NOT need to see the effect size (Cohen's D)
5.45
5. Determine the value needed to reject the null hypothesis. Remember to calculate the
correct degrees of freedom before finding the critical t-value! Note whether it is best to
10. Was your obtained t-value positive or negative? Would it matter either way? With your
discussion group, tell my why a positive or negative value is not important when it comes
use the one-tailed or two-tailed test.
to your obtained value
The value needed to reject the null hypothesis is 5.45.
The degree of freedom for finding the critical value (tm-2)
20+20-2
11. What is more appropriate to use for your data set: the one-tailed 1-Test or the two-tailed -
=38
Test. Why? Would your APA write-up differ depending on which you used?
The level of significance is not provided so it can be assumed as 0.05
The critical value at level of significance 0.05 with 38 degree of freedom from the t-value
table (one tailed) is 1.686.
12. Why would it be easier to find significance using ap value of 05 than a p value of .01?
6. Compare the obtained and critical value
The obtained value t is 5.45 and the critical value is to2, al#n2.2 = 1.686
13. Finally (and this is the tough one), how would your results have differed with regard to
steps 4 through 9 if you had used n rather than n-1?
The obtained value is greater than the critical value..
7. Decide whether you will retain the null hypothesis or
As, the absolute value oft is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis is
rejected.
Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into"
group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group.
8. Decide whether you will reject the null hypothesis
As, the absolute value of t is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis is
rejected.
Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into"
group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group.
DFocus
47 of 901 words
100%
Page 4 of 4
1:12 PM
PC
help_outline

Image Transcriptionclose

AutoSave Off ) A OSearch Discussion #11 - How Fast -Fall 19.docx osvaldo lima OL Insert References Help Share File Home Design Layout Mailings Review View Comments 1 1 I 2 3 I 4 I 5. I 6 7 . 9. Finally, write up your results as you would see it in a results section of an empirical research paper. Make sure to include the means and SDs for smashed into and hit group (in miles). I do NOT need to see the effect size (Cohen's D) 5.45 5. Determine the value needed to reject the null hypothesis. Remember to calculate the correct degrees of freedom before finding the critical t-value! Note whether it is best to 10. Was your obtained t-value positive or negative? Would it matter either way? With your discussion group, tell my why a positive or negative value is not important when it comes use the one-tailed or two-tailed test. to your obtained value The value needed to reject the null hypothesis is 5.45. The degree of freedom for finding the critical value (tm-2) 20+20-2 11. What is more appropriate to use for your data set: the one-tailed 1-Test or the two-tailed - =38 Test. Why? Would your APA write-up differ depending on which you used? The level of significance is not provided so it can be assumed as 0.05 The critical value at level of significance 0.05 with 38 degree of freedom from the t-value table (one tailed) is 1.686. 12. Why would it be easier to find significance using ap value of 05 than a p value of .01? 6. Compare the obtained and critical value The obtained value t is 5.45 and the critical value is to2, al#n2.2 = 1.686 13. Finally (and this is the tough one), how would your results have differed with regard to steps 4 through 9 if you had used n rather than n-1? The obtained value is greater than the critical value.. 7. Decide whether you will retain the null hypothesis or As, the absolute value oft is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into" group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group. 8. Decide whether you will reject the null hypothesis As, the absolute value of t is greater than the t critical value, so the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, it can be decided that it would not retain the null hypothesis and the "smashed into" group report higher estimates of speed than the "hit" group. DFocus 47 of 901 words 100% Page 4 of 4 1:12 PM PC

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