Question

The "p" in p-value stands for probability. More specifically, it is the probability of making a mistake. The p-value is a number that is generated by the computer based on the data the researcher has inputted. The p-value is a number that can range anywhere from 0 to 1. After the p-value is calculated by the computer it is compared to alpha or the level of significance which, in the social sciences, is generally set to 0.05. If I ran an experiment and my p-value was calculated to be 0.06 what would that mean?

Step 1

**Explanation:**

The ** p-value** is the probability of obtaining a value (statistic) of the test result as extreme as, or more extreme than, the value that has been obtained, assuming

The **level of significance** or *α* is the probability of rejecting *H*0 when, in fact, *H*0 is true. Rejecting *H*0 when it is true is an error or mistake. So, the level of significance is the probability of making a mistake, specifically termed as the probability of Type I error.

Researchers, naturally, want to minimize the probability of this mistake. So, they fix it at some convenient value (0.05 is a very widely used such value), so that this **error probability cannot exceed that amount**.

**Even when H0 is true, there is a small chance that the test results are really extreme**.

For example, in a family of people with average height of 5 ft 7 in, there may be a person who is 7 ft tall; it is quite unlikely, but that does not mean it is impossible; we cannot just conclude that the 7 ft tall person does not belong to the family.

If we get such extreme results from a test, we reject the null hypothesis. In view of this example, we conclude that the very tall person does not belong to the said family, which is actually a wrong conclusion or an error. The level of significance helps to control such errors.

A level of significance of 0.05 means that, for an extreme value, we will wrongly reject *H*0 in not more than 5% cases. In other words, you set a test result value (critical value) beforehand, such that, the **probability of getting a test result more extreme than the critical value would be only 0.05** or 5%, which is quite low. **If in your test, you do get a value more extreme than the critical value you have set, then you reject H0** while keeping in mind that there is a 5% chance that you are making the wrong decision.

Ideally, you would think that one should set a value such that there can never be any error, that is, one should set a value such...

Tagged in

Q: Part a, b, and c

A: Null and alternative hypothesis:Null Hypothesis:A null hypothesis is a statement regarding the popul...

Q: A simple random sample of 500 individuals provides 150 Yes responses. a. What is the point estimate ...

A: a.The required point estimate is:

Q: Let’s say you have a study looking at the DV “Time to help”. Your IV is whether potential helpers di...

A: Cohen's d is a type of effect size that represents the degree to which a null hypothesis is false. ...

Q: Is the national crime rate really going down? Some sociologists say yes! They say that the reason fo...

A: 1) Computation of test statistic:Here, the appropriate test to check whether the population proporti...

Q: Find the critical value tc for the confidence level c=0.98 and sample size n=21

A: The critical value tc for 98% confidence level with sample size 21:The confidence level is 98%. Tha...

Q: An executive believes that a new energy drink his company developed will increase an individual's st...

A: Paired t-test statistic results:For testing whether the new energy drink increase an individual’s st...

Q: Repeat the following procedure for the four given numbers.Multiply the number by 4. Add 4 to product...

A: The first number is 1Step-1 Multiplying by 4 we get =1*4 = 4Step-2 Add 4 to the product we get = 4+4...

Q: Question B

A: B)The variables whose level are set by the experimenter is the independent variable, which is called...

Q: Reasons for means and medians being good and misleading.

A: Solution:Definition of mean and median:Mean and median are the measures of central tendency.Arithmet...

Sorry about that. What wasn’t helpful?