Question
Asked Feb 25, 2020
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The phenomenon of crossing over, which occurs in Prophase I, causes:
   
the same allelic combinations as before.
   
the exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids.
   
the separation of homologous pairs.
   
the duplication of tetrads.
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Expert Answer

Step 1

Cell division is the most important biological process by which cell divided in the number and can form two or more daughter cells. Cell division occurs through the sequential steps of the cell cycle. Cell cycle most prominently takes place in eukaryotes. Different cyclins and kinases are required for the proper division of the cells.The duration of the cell cycle is diffrenet in different organisms. This division time might varies from 2 hours in lower organissm to upto 24 hours in higher eukaryotes. Four different phases of cell cycle are G1 phase (gap 1), S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (gap 2) and M (moitotic phase). The cell has to undergo through all these stages but actual division of cell starts is the M phase. Sometimes, the cell might eneter at G0 phase in certain environmental conditions.

 

Two main types of cell division that occur in eukaryotes are mitosis and meiosis.Mitosis occurs in the normal somatic cells. The cell undergoes through four phases known as prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telopahse. The paret cell divide to form two daughter cells. This division is known as equational division as the chromosome number remains same after the division. The human cell has 23 pairs or 46 number of chromosomes.

Step 2

Meiosis division occurs especially in the germ cells ( spertm and ova)and cell divides into four haploid daughter cells. This division results in the reduction of the genetic material exactly half and also known as the reduction division. The meiosis involves two stages – Meiosis I and Meisos II. Meiosis I is the actual reduction division and divided into prophase -I, metaphase -I, anaphase -I and telophase- I. The meiosis- II is same as mitosis. The meiosis – II...

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