Asked May 13, 2019

What are H and N spikes and how do they affect immunity in relation to the flue and why is it necessary to develop a new flu vaccine each year?


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Step 1

Common cold or flu is a viral infection that is transmitted through the air from person-to-person. Out of the A, B, C, and D influenza viruses, A and B are the most common viruses that cause infection every year. The influenza A virus is divided into two categories based on the protein found on its surface. H stands for hemagglutinin and N stands for neuraminidase. H and N are further divided into 18 and 11 subtypes respectively.

Step 2

The different types of H and N lead to different combinations in the viral surface, which makes it difficult for the immune system to identify. Thus, the immunity of the host is reduce...

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Medical Microbiology and Virology

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