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What are the 4 primary biomolecules? and explain their purpose.  Very hard to understand professor in class

Question

What are the 4 primary biomolecules? and explain their purpose.  Very hard to understand professor in class

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Step 1

Biomolecules, a shorter name given for biological molecules is a term used for the molecules or ions that are present in a living organism. These biomolecules are essential for the organism in order to carry its biological processes.

The four main or primary biomolecules are:

  1. Proteins,
  2. Lipids,
  3. Carbohydrates, and
  4. Nucleic acid.
Step 2

Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many crucial roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs. It is an important component of each cell in the body. Even the cell membrane has integral proteins to facilitate the movement of certain ions.

Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein.

These monomers (amino acids) join together by a peptide bond and the polymer formed is known as the protein.

The sequence of amino acids determines each protein’s unique 3-dimensional structure and its specific function.

 

List of some proteins and their functions:

Function
Description
Еxample
Antibody
Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such
as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
Enzymes carry out almost all of the thousands of
chemical reactions that take place in cells. They
also assist with the formation of new molecules by
reading the genetic information stored in DNA
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Enzyme
Messenger proteins, such as some types of
hormones, transmit signals to coordinate
biological processes between different cells
tissues, and organs
Growth hormone
Messenger
Structural
These proteins provide structure and support for
cells. On a larger scale, they also allow the body
to move
Actin
component
These proteins bind and carry atoms and small
molecules within cells and throughout the body
Transport/storage
Ferritin
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Function Description Еxample Antibody Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Enzymes carry out almost all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in cells. They also assist with the formation of new molecules by reading the genetic information stored in DNA Phenylalanine hydroxylase Enzyme Messenger proteins, such as some types of hormones, transmit signals to coordinate biological processes between different cells tissues, and organs Growth hormone Messenger Structural These proteins provide structure and support for cells. On a larger scale, they also allow the body to move Actin component These proteins bind and carry atoms and small molecules within cells and throughout the body Transport/storage Ferritin

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Step 3

Lipids - There are many types of lipids in the body of an organism, it includes fats, oils, waxes, and steroids.

The major role of lipid is that it forms the outer envelope of the cell that is the basic structural and functional unit of life. The cell membrane is composed of two layers of lipids.

The body uses fats as the major source of energy, and also uses to store energy.

Some of the steroids act as endocrine hormones, like the aldosterone, testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, ...

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Science

Biology

Biochemistry

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