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Asked Mar 27, 2019
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what can the high concentration of extracellular sodium bring into the cell through a carrier protein?

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Expert Answer

Step 1

Sodium (Na+) is an essential ion along with potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) that are required to maintain the proper functions of the body like heart contractibility, kidney functions (secretion and reabsorption), and cell signalling by the neurons. The sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) pump forms an integral part of the cell as a membrane protein. This protein complex forms a part of active transport, which consumes energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Step 2

Carrier protein is a type of membrane protein that undergoes conformational changes to carry a molecule across the cell membrane. It usually does so with the help of ATP molecules and against the concentration gradient of the transportable molecule. The carrier proteins also come into play during facilitated diffusion. The carrier proteins have specific binding sites, upon which the molecules to be transported are attached.

Step 3

The glucose-sodium cotransport is an example of a carrier protein that forms a part of secondary active transport. Here, sodium-glucose acts as symporter and thus, an excess amount of sodium ions outside the cell membrane takes along with, it glucose ions inside the cell.  This process utilizes energy indirectly from differences in the ionic co...

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