Asked Mar 14, 2019

what is interphase and DNA duplication?

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Step 1

The longest phase of the cell cycle where the cell spends most of its time is known as interphase. During interphase, the cell copies its DNA and prepares itself for cell division. Interphase helps the cell to obtain and metabolize nutrients. The cell also reads the DNA and conducts other activities during this phase.

Step 2

Interphase is made up of three phases: G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase.  

G1 phase: In this stage, the cell grows and functions normally. This is the time during which the cell makes more ribosomes and it will not enter S phase until it has enough ribosomes ready. A high amount of protein synthesis occurs and the cell grows to double its size. The mitochondria also fuses together to form a network, which helps in the production of energy molecules by this organelles.

S phase: This is the synthesis phase when the cell synthesizes its DNA and the chromosome number is doubled. Package proteins, called histones, are also made to wrap the copied DNA. The cell also produces a lot of phospholipids, and thus its amount doubles during Sphase.

G2 phase: This is the phase in which the cell resumes its growth in preparation for division. The mitochondria divide and continues to grow until cell division takes place. G2 is necessary for the cell to make sure that all of the DNA is intact and that it is not damaged. It is the period of rapid cell growth and protein synthesis during which the cell prepares itself for division. 

In addition, there is another phase, called the G0 phase. It is regarded as an extended G1 phase, where the cell is neither dividing nor preparing to divide. The cells in this phase are in a non-dividing phase outside of the cell cycle.

Step 3

DNA duplication is the doubling of the amount of DNA as a result of replication. DNA replication is the synthesis of an exact replica of DNA, where the replicated strand is complementary to the template strand. Replication doubles the amount of DNA inside the cell. Each chromatid gets doub...

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