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What is the “directionality” problem concerning correlational studies as it relates to inferring causation?

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What is the “directionality” problem concerning correlational studies as it relates to inferring causation?

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In correlational studies, one of the major problems that make difficult for us to infer anything about the cause of the correlation is the directionality problem. This refers to the possibility that the first variable causes changes in second variable, or that the second variable causes changes in first variable. i.e., before concluding that a correlation between variable 1 and variable 2 is due to changes in 1 causing changes in 2, it is important to realize that the direction of causation may be the opposite, thus changes i...

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