Question

What is the “directionality” problem concerning correlational studies as it relates to inferring causation?

**Explanation**

In correlational studies, one of the major problems that make difficult for us to infer anything about the cause of the correlation is the **directionality **problem. This refers to the possibility that the first variable causes changes in second variable, or that the second variable causes changes in first variable. i.e., before concluding that a correlation between variable 1 and variable 2 is due to changes in 1 causing changes in 2, it is important to realize that the direction of causation may be the opposite, thus changes i...

Tagged in

Q: Flying over the western states with mountainous terrain in a small aircraft is 40% riskier than flyi...

A: (a) Poisson distribution is a good choice for the probability distribution of r:Poisson distribution...

Q: yai ayu, au uiaı uie iwu aapico aI IIupcInuc J pi IaIuvII apico ocicLICu 1VIITIVILIany uiouIvulcu pu...

A: Solution:Null and alternative hypotheses:The null and alternative hypotheses to test is given below:...

Q: Need (b) and (c) Let X denote the data transfer time (ms) in a grid computing system (the time requi...

A: (a)Finding the values of α and β :The random variable X represents the data transfer time in a grid ...

Q: Question 1 The company Phiten makes necklaces that Major League Baseball players commonly wear durin...

A: a) an exogenous variable can be defined as a variable whose value is independent of other variables ...

Q: Derby Leicester is a city planner preparing for a meeting with the mayor. He would like to show that...

A: Assumptions:The assumptions for a hypothesis test of the difference between two population means are...

Q: Let x be the age in years of a licensed automobile driver. Let y be the percentage of all fatal acci...

A: Solution:(a) Draw a scatter diagram displaying the data.

Q: The data 17.7 33.5 26.3 22.9 21.4 e 28.9 24.2 18.3 27.9 21.2 19.2 22.121.6 37.7 37.4 presents the bo...

A: Frequency distribution:Frequency of an interval is the number observations that fall in that interva...

Q: How do I run a the test of normality? Assumptions of normality

A: Introduction:Several tests of normality exist, using which you can verify whether a particular data ...

Q: I want you to come up with one study idea that would use a one sample chi square and one study that ...

A: The one sample Chi-square test is also called as Chi-square goodness of fit, which is used to decide...

Sorry about that. What wasn’t helpful?