Question
Asked Oct 13, 2019
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What types of mutations occur (i.e. describe base substitution vs. frameshift, silent, missense, and nonsense mutations)?

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Expert Answer

Step 1

A mutation is a permanent change in the sequence of DNA, which occurs during the recombination or replication process. A mutated DNA is said to be damaged because it can lead to various disorders in the living being. Mutation can be caused due to substitution, insertion or removal of base pairs. It is basically divided into two types, base substitution mutation, and frameshift mutation.

Step 2

Base substitution mutation – It is also termed as point mutation because a single base is substituted in this type of mutation. It is the common type of mutation and is further divided into the following types-

  1. Silent mutation – When a base is substituted at the third position of the codon, it results in the generation of the synonymous codon. Such mutation is termed as silent mutation. Moreover, the amino acid sequence encoded in such mutation is not altered.
  2. Missense mutation – When the substitution of a base results in the encoding of a different amino acid sequence, then it is termed as a missense mutation.
  3. Nonsense mutation – When the substitution of base results in the formation of a stop codon and the translation stops at this codon, then such mutation is termed as a nonsense mutation.

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