Asked Sep 21, 2019

Which enzymes catalyze the chain elongation steps during replication, transcription and translation, respectively?


Expert Answer

Step 1

The enzymes that catalyze the chain elongation steps during replication are as follows: 

DNA polymerase: DNA polymerase adds DNA nucleotides to the 3′ end of the newly synthesized polynucleotide strand. 

Primase: Primase initiates polynucleotide synthesis and by creating a short RNA polynucleotide strand complementary to the template DNA strand.

Topoisomerase: Topoisomerase prevents the overwinding of the DNA double helix ahead of the replication fork as the DNA is opening up; it does so by causing temporary nicks in the DNA helix and then resealing it.

DNA Ligase: Ligase catalyzes the formation of a covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3′-OH end of one DNA fragment and the 5′ phosphate end of the other fragment, stabilizing the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule.

Step 2

The enzyme that catalyzes the elongation steps during transcription is as follows: 

RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase enzyme proceeds along with the DNA template, synthesizing mRNA in the 5′ to 3′ direction at a rate of approximately...

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