Question
Asked Mar 2, 2019
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Which of the following types of mutations will have the most devastating effect on a cell?
A.frameshift mutation
B. missense mutation
C. nonsense mutation
D. silent mutation

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Expert Answer

Step 1

Mutations are the permanent changes in the genetic material of an organism. These changes occur in nucleotide sequences and result in alteration of polypeptide sequences translated from that gene. 

Step 2

Thre are two types of gene mutations namely, point mutations and frameshift mutations.

Point mutations are those in which there is swapping of one nucleotide base with other at a single location in gene. This can be replacement of a purine or another purine or pyrimidine and vice versa. As only one base is changed, the affect is limited to maximum one amino acid.

These are further classified as:

1) Missense mutation: In this the mutant codon codes for different amino acid than that coded by normal codon. It brings about the change of one amino acid in polypeptide.

2) Nonsense mutation: In this mutant codon is a stop codon and terminates the process of translation. It results in formation of incomplete polypeptide which is non functional.

3) Silent mutation: In this mutant codon codes for same amino acid as coded by the normal one. It brings about no change in polypeptide chain.

Step 3

Frameshift mutations are those in which one nucleotide is inserted or deleted in the gene. It results in change in reading frame and hence all the codons present after mutation site are changed. 

This changed codon sequence res...

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