Question
Asked Sep 3, 2019
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-Which pH has the highest concentration of OH- ions? (12; 7; 2)

-Pairs of weak acids and bases that resist pH changes to maintain homeostasis are called 

-Which solution has a pH closest to neutral?  (Stomach acid; blood; lemon juice; soap, household bleach)

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Expert Answer

Step 1

1. pH 7 is considered to be neutral. pH lower than 7 is considered to be acidic solutions, whereas, the pH higher than 7 refers to basic or alkaline solutions. At pH 7, the concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions are equal. Any solution with a pH higher than 7 has more hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution. So, out of the given options, as pH 12 is higher than pH 7, it indicates a basic solution and has the highest concentration of OH- ions. pH 2 is lower than pH 7 and indicates an acidic solution. So, pH 2 has the highest concentration of H+ ions.

Step 2

2. Pairs of weak acids and bases that resist pH changes to maintain homeostasis are called buffers. A buffer is a solution that can resist the pH change upon the addition of acidic or basic components. It is able to neutralize the small amount of acid or base added, and thus, maintains the pH of the solution stable.

Step 3

3. The neutral pH is considered to be 7. pH of the given solutions are as follows:

a. Stomach acid: It has a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5. 

b. Blood: The pH of blood is regulated between 7.35 and 7.45.

c. Lemon juice: It has a pH of 2 in its natural state. But once metabolized, the pH rises well above 7.

d. Soap: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range 9-10.

e. Household bleach: The pH of hou...

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