Interpretation: The constitution isomer for the given compound has to be found by using its molecular formula C2H5Cl.
Concept introduction: The arrangement of atoms that are bonded together determines its constitution and molecular formula of that particular compound.
This concept is referred as structural isomers or in more modern term constitutional isomers.
Each atom has a typical valency or valence which is defined as the ability of an atom to form a chemical bond with other atoms. For example, carbon has four valence or tetravalent that means carbon has the capacity to form four bonds with other elements or other atoms.
Nitrogen and oxygen atoms are trivalent and divalent respectively. Hydrogen and halogens are monovalent in nature.
To find: The constitutional isomer for the compound C2H5Cl
Find the valency for carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and chlorine (Cl) atoms in C2H5Cl
Carbon is tetravalent whereas both chlorine and hydrogen atoms are monovalent. In the given compound, there are two carbon atoms, one chlorine atom and five hydrogen atoms. Carbon atom is able to form four chemical bonds with other atoms. Similarly, chlorine and each hydrogen atoms are bonded by a single chemical bond.
Arrange the atoms for the constituational isomer C2H5Cl
Carbon atom has the highest valency in the given compound. So, it occupies the centered position by the formation of a single carbon-carbon bond. In the case of hydrogen and chlorine atoms, they occupy the peripheral positions.
The chlorine atom can attach in any position of the six available positions of two carbon atoms. The resulting six structures are identical.
The constitutional isomer of the given compound is drawn by using the valency concept of the atoms involved and the arrangement of the atoms in space.
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