   Chapter 10, Problem 106IL

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

A 1.50 L constant-volume calorimeter (Figure 5.12) contains C3H8(g) and O2(g). The partial pressure of C3H8 is 0.10 atm and the partial pressure of O2 is 5.0 atm. The temperature is 20.0 °C. A reaction occurs between the two compounds, forming CO2(g) and H2O(ℓ). The heat from the reaction causes the temperature to rise to 23.2 °C. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b) How many moles of C3H8(g) are present in the flask initially? (c) What is the mole fraction of C3H8(g) in the flask before reaction? (d) After the reaction, the flask contains excess oxygen and the products of the reaction, CO2(g) and H2O(ℓ). What amount of unreacted O2(g) remains? (e) After the reaction, what is the partial pressure exerted by the CO2(g) in this system? (f) What is the partial pressure exerted by the excess oxygen remaining after the reaction?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the balanced equation, moles, mole fraction of the reactant, the unreacted amount of given reactant, partial pressure of given compounds should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Balanced Chemical Equation:

The chemical reaction when the number of atoms present in the reactant side of the reaction should be equal to the number and the charge of atoms present in the product side of the reaction which then only be considered as balanced.

Explanation

The given reactants C3H8(g) and O2(g) reacts in order to give set of products like CO2(g) and H2O(l). In order to obtain the balanced chemical reaction the number of atoms present in given reactant and products are analyzed and the suitable coefficients are included before them in order to obtain the balanced equation.

Observing given reactant and products 3 should be included before CO2(g) in order to get equal number of carbon atoms on both sides then,

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the moles, of given compounds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.  At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the balanced equation, moles, mole fraction of the reactant, the unreacted amount of given reactant, partial pressure of given compounds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the balanced equation, moles, mole fraction of the reactant, the unreacted amount of given reactant, partial pressure of given compounds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the of given compounds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given two reactants and the products under given set of conditions the partial pressure of given compounds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence exerted by the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

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