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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

A 1.0-L flask contains 10.0 g each of O2 and CO2 at 25 °C.

  1. (a) Which gas has the greater partial pressure, O2 or CO2, or are they the same?
  2. (b) Which molecules have the greater rms speed, or are they the same?
  3. (c) Which molecules have the greater average kinetic energy, or are they the same?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given set of gases under given temperature, volume and amount the gas with greater partial pressure, with greater rms speed and the gas with greater average kinetic energy should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas Equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.  At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

The root mean square velocity μ is defined as the measure of velocity of particle in gas.  It is the method to determine the single velocity value for particles.

Root mean square velocity can be determined,

  μrms=(3RTM)1/2 (1)

  (gas constant)R=8.314JKmolM=Molarmass

Molar mass: The molar mass of a substance is determined by dividing the given mass of substance by the amount of the substance.

Average Kinetic energy: The kinetic energy for the gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature.  The kinetic energy is equal to half of the multiplied value obtained by multiplication of mass of gas with rms velocity of the gas.

Explanation

Given:

  Volume,V=1LMassofO2=10gmoles =massmolar mass=10g32g/mol=0.3125molMassofCO2=10gmoles =massmolar mass=10g44.01g/mol=0.2272molTemperature,T = 25oC = 273.15+25 = 298

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given set of gases under given temperature, volume and amount the gas with greater partial pressure, with greater rms speed and the gas with greater average kinetic energy should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas Equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.   At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

The root mean square velocity μ is defined as the measure of velocity of particle in gas.  It is the method to determine the single velocity value for particles.

Root mean square velocity can be determined,

  μrms=(3RTM)1/2 (1)

  (gas constant)R=8.314JKmolM=Molarmass

Molar mass: The molar mass of a substance is determined by dividing the given mass of substance by the amount of the substance.

Average Kinetic energy: The kinetic energy for the gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature.  The kinetic energy is equal to half of the multiplied value obtained by multiplication of mass of gas with rms velocity of the gas.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given set of gases under given temperature, volume and amount the gas with greater partial pressure, with greater rms speed and the gas with greater average kinetic energy should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas Equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.  At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

The root mean square velocity μ is defined as the measure of velocity of particle in gas. It is the method to determine the single velocity value for particles.

Root mean square velocity can be determined,

  μrms=(3RTM)1/2 (1)

  (gas constant)R=8.314JKmolM=Molarmass

Molar mass: The molar mass of a substance is determined by dividing the given mass of substance by the amount of the substance.

Average Kinetic energy: The kinetic energy for the gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature.  The kinetic energy is equal to half of the multiplied value obtained by multiplication of mass of gas with rms velocity of the gas.

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