   Chapter 10, Problem 108E

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Like most substances, bromine exists in one of the three typical phases. Br2 has a normal melting point of −7.2°C and a normal boiling point of 59°C. The triple point for Br2 is −7.3°C and 40 torr, and the critical point is 320°C and I 00 atm. Using this information, sketch a phase diagram for bromine indicating the points described above. Based on your phase diagram, order the three phases from least dense to most dense. What is the stable phase of Br2 at room temperature and 1 atm? Under what temperature conditions can liquid bromine never exist? What phase changes occur as the temperature of a sample of bromine at 0.10 atm is increased from −50°C to 200°C?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation

• Phase diagram for Bromine to be drawn.
• To order these phases from least to most dense.
• Stable states for Bromine at standard conditions.
• Under what temperature phase changes occur at 0.10 atm and temperature increases from -50°C to 200°C.

Concept Introduction

Phase diagram: Under different temperature and pressure, physical states of the substance that are represented in graph are known as phase diagram. The temperature represents in X-axis and pressure in Y-axis.

Triple point: For given substance, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are coexisting in thermodynamic equilibrium at particular temperature and pressure.

Critical point: In a phase diagram, a point at which both liquid and gaseous state of the substance having indistinguishable density.

Explanation

Explanation

Record the given data

Normal melting point of Bromine = -7.2°C

Normal boiling point of Bromine = 59°C

Triple point of Bromine = -7.3°C and 40torr

Critical point of Bromine = 320°C and 100 atm

Normal melting point, normal boiling point, triple point and critical point of Bromine are recorded as shown.

To explain phase diagram of Bromine.

From above slope, three phases of Bromine was given. In which solid phase of Bromine is denser compared to that of liquid Bromine and liquid Bromine is denser compared to that of gaseous Bromine which are given below

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