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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 10, Problem 21PS
Textbook Problem

A balloon for long-distance flying contains 1.2 × 107 L of helium. If the helium pressure is 737 mm Hg at 25 °C, what mass of helium (in grams) does the balloon contain?

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The mass of helium should be calculated using the given temperature, volume and pressure.

Concept Introduction:

Different laws have been put forward to introduce properties of gases:

Boyle’s law:

At fixed temperature, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas.

  P1V(n,Twillbeconstant)

Charles’s law: States that volume is directly proportional to temperature when the gas is held at constant pressure and number of molecules.

VT

General Gas Law: Combining Charles’s law and Boyle’s law we get the General gas law or combined gas law.

  P1V1T1=P2V2T2

Avogadro’s hypothesis:

  • To relate the amount of gas and the volume.
  • VnatconstantTandP

Combining all these together ideal gas law is introduced:

  PV=nRT

Explanation of Solution

Ideal gas law: PV=nRT

  R=0.0827L.atmK.molTshouldbeexpressedinKPshouldbeexpressedinatm

Given data:

  P=737mmHg=0.97atmT=25°C=25+273=298Km=?V=1.2×107L

In-order to calculate mass of the helium we need number of moles

From ideal gas equation:

  n=PVRT=0.97atm×1.2×107L0.0827L.atm/K.mol×298K=4

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Chapter 10 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 10.1 - At the summit of Mount Everest (altitude = 8848...Ch. 10.2 - A large balloon contains 65.0 L of helium gas at...Ch. 10.2 - A balloon is inflated with helium to a volume of...Ch. 10.2 - You have a 22-L cylinder of helium at a pressure...Ch. 10.2 - Methane burns in oxygen to give CO2 and H2O,...Ch. 10.3 - The balloon used by Jacques Charles in his...Ch. 10.3 - At 1.00 atm and 25 C, the density of dry air is...Ch. 10.3 - A 0.105-g sample of a gaseous compound has a...Ch. 10.4 - If 15.0 g of sodium reacts with water, what volume...Ch. 10.5 - The halothane-oxygen mixture described in this...Ch. 10.6 - Calculate the rms speeds of helium atoms and N2...Ch. 10.7 - A sample of methane. CH4, is found to effuse...Ch. 10.8 - How does atmospheric pressure vary with altitude?...Ch. 10.8 - Based on the graph from question 1, predict the...Ch. 10.8 - At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 1.00 atm....Ch. 10.8 - Use the data provided in Table 10.1 to calculate...Ch. 10.8 - To stay aloft, a blimp must achieve neutral...Ch. 10.8 - Nitrogen gas is produced not only by NaN3...Ch. 10.8 - You wish to fill a 75 L airbag at 25 °C to 3.0 atm...Ch. 10 - Pressure (See Section 10.1 and Example 10.1.) The...Ch. 10 - The average barometric pressure at an altitude of...Ch. 10 - Indicate which represents the higher pressure in...Ch. 10 - Put the following in order of increasing pressure:...Ch. 10 - A sample of nitrogen gas has a pressure of 67.5 mm...Ch. 10 - A sample of CO2 gas has a pressure of 56.5 mm Hg...Ch. 10 - You have 3.5 L of NO at a temperature of 22.0 C....Ch. 10 - A 5.0-mL sample of CO2 gas is enclosed in a...Ch. 10 - You have 3.6 L of H2 gas at 380 mm Hg and 25 C....Ch. 10 - You have a sample of CO2 in flask A with a volume...Ch. 10 - You have a sample of gas in a flask with a volume...Ch. 10 - A sample of gas occupies 135 mL at 22.5 C; the...Ch. 10 - One of the cylinders of an automobile engine has a...Ch. 10 - A helium-filled balloon of the type used in...Ch. 10 - Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen to give...Ch. 10 - Ethane bums in air to give H2O and CO2. 2 C2H6(g)...Ch. 10 - A 1.25-g sample of CO2 is contained in a 750.-mL...Ch. 10 - A balloon holds 30.0 kg of helium. What is the...Ch. 10 - A flask is first evacuated so that it contains no...Ch. 10 - A steel cylinder holds 1.50 g of ethanol, C2H5OH....Ch. 10 - A balloon for long-distance flying contains 1.2 ...Ch. 10 - What mass of helium, in grams, is required to fill...Ch. 10 - Forty miles above Earths surface, the temperature...Ch. 10 - Diethyl ether, (C2H5)2O, vaporizes easily at room...Ch. 10 - A gaseous organofluorine compound has a density of...Ch. 10 - Chloroform is a common liquid used in the...Ch. 10 - A 1 007-g sample of an unknown gas exerts a...Ch. 10 - A 0.0130-g sample of a gas with an empirical...Ch. 10 - A new boron hydride, BxHy, has been isolated. To...Ch. 10 - Acetaldehyde is a common liquid compound that...Ch. 10 - Iron reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce...Ch. 10 - Silane, SiH4, reacts with O2 to give silicon...Ch. 10 - Sodium azide, the explosive compound in automobile...Ch. 10 - The hydrocarbon octane (C8H18) bums to give CO2...Ch. 10 - Hydrazine reacts with O2 according to the...Ch. 10 - A self-contained underwater breathing apparatus...Ch. 10 - What is the total pressure in atmospheres of a gas...Ch. 10 - A cylinder of compressed gas is labeled...Ch. 10 - A halothane-oxygen mixture (C2HBrCIF3 + O2) can be...Ch. 10 - A collapsed balloon is filled with He to a volume...Ch. 10 - You have two flasks of equal volume. Flask A...Ch. 10 - Equal masses of gaseous N2 and Ar are placed in...Ch. 10 - If the rms speed of an oxygen molecule is 4.28 ...Ch. 10 - Calculate the rms speed for CO molecules at 25 C....Ch. 10 - Place the following gases in order of increasing...Ch. 10 - The reaction of SO2 with Cl2 gives dichlorine...Ch. 10 - In each pair of gases below, tell which will...Ch. 10 - Argon gas is 10 times denser than helium gas at...Ch. 10 - A gas whose molar mass you wish to know effuses...Ch. 10 - A sample of uranium fluoride is found to effuse at...Ch. 10 - Under which set of conditions will CO2 deviate...Ch. 10 - Under which set of conditions will Cl2 deviate...Ch. 10 - In the text, it is stated that the pressure of...Ch. 10 - You want to store 165 g of CO2 gas in a 12.5-L...Ch. 10 - Consider a 5.00-L tank containing 325 g of H2O at...Ch. 10 - Consider a 5.00-L tank containing 375 g of Ar at a...Ch. 10 - Complete the following table:Ch. 10 - On combustion, 1.0 L of a gaseous compound of...Ch. 10 - You have a sample of helium gas at 33 C, and you...Ch. 10 - If 12.0 g of O2 is required to inflate a balloon...Ch. 10 - Butyl mercaptan, C4H9SH, has a very bad odor and...Ch. 10 - A bicycle tire has an internal volume of 1.52 L...Ch. 10 - The temperature of the atmosphere on Mars can be...Ch. 10 - If you place 2.25 g of solid silicon in a 6.56-L...Ch. 10 - What volume (in liters) of O2, measured at...Ch. 10 - Nitroglycerin decomposes into four different gases...Ch. 10 - Ni(CO)4 can be made by reacting finely divided...Ch. 10 - Ethane bums in air to give H2O and CO2. 2 C2H6(g)...Ch. 10 - You have four gas samples: 1. 1.0 L of H2 at STP...Ch. 10 - Propane reacts with oxygen to give carbon dioxide...Ch. 10 - Iron carbonyl can be made by the direct reaction...Ch. 10 - Analysis of a gaseous chlorofluorocarbon, CClxFy,...Ch. 10 - There are five compounds in the family of...Ch. 10 - A miniature volcano can be made in the laboratory...Ch. 10 - The density of air 20 km above Earths surface is...Ch. 10 - A 3.0-L bulb containing He at 145 mm Hg is...Ch. 10 - Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, reacts with fluorine to...Ch. 10 - A xenon fluoride can be prepared by heating a...Ch. 10 - Several small molecules (besides water) are...Ch. 10 - Consider the following gases: He, SO2, CO2, and...Ch. 10 - Which of the following is not correct? (a)...Ch. 10 - Carbon dioxide, CO2, was shown lo effuse through a...Ch. 10 - In an experiment, you have determined that 0.66...Ch. 10 - A balloon is filled with helium gas to a gauge...Ch. 10 - If you have a sample of water in a closed...Ch. 10 - You are given 1.56 g of a mixture of KClO3 and...Ch. 10 - A study of climbers who reached the summit of...Ch. 10 - Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen to give...Ch. 10 - Ammonia gas is synthesized by combining hydrogen...Ch. 10 - Nitrogen trifluoride is prepared by the reaction...Ch. 10 - Chlorine trifluoride, ClF3, is a valuable reagent...Ch. 10 - Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial...Ch. 10 - What mass of water vapor is present in a dormitory...Ch. 10 - You have a 550.-mL tank of gas with a pressure of...Ch. 10 - Methane is burned in a laboratory Bunsen burner to...Ch. 10 - Iron forms a series of compounds of the type...Ch. 10 - Group 2A metal carbonates are decomposed to the...Ch. 10 - One way to synthesize diborane, B2H6, is the...Ch. 10 - You are given a solid mixture of NaNO2 and NaCl...Ch. 10 - You have 1.249 g of a mixture of NaHCO3 and...Ch. 10 - A mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 has a mass of 2.50...Ch. 10 - Many nitrate salts can be decomposed by heating....Ch. 10 - You have a gas, one of the three known...Ch. 10 - A 1.50 L constant-volume calorimeter (Figure 5.12)...Ch. 10 - A 1.0-L flask contains 10.0 g each of O2 and CO2...Ch. 10 - If equal masses of O2 and N2 are placed in...Ch. 10 - You have two pressure-proof steel cylinders of...Ch. 10 - Two flasks, each with a volume of 1.00 L, contain...Ch. 10 - State whether each of the following samples of...Ch. 10 - Each of four flasks is filled with a different...Ch. 10 - You have two gas-filled balloons, one containing...Ch. 10 - The sodium azide required for automobile air bags...Ch. 10 - If the absolute temperature of a gas doubles, by...Ch. 10 - A Chlorine gas (Cl2) is used as a disinfectant in...

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