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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

What is an alloy? Explain the differences in structure between substitutional and interstitial alloys. Give an example of each type.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

  • A description of alloy has to be given.
  • The structural differences between substituted alloys and interstitial alloys have to be explained.
  • Example for both the type of alloys has to be cited.

Concept introduction:

            An alloy is a mixture of metals or metals with non-metals. The so formed alloy exhibit excellent properties like durability and finds various applications. Example: Bell metal is an alloy made of 77% copper and 23% Tin.

            There are two types of alloys - substitutional alloy and interstitial alloy. In substituted alloys, one type of metal atoms occupies the lattice sites of the other metal atom. In interstitial alloys, one type of metal atoms occupies the interstitial spaces in the lattice of another metal.

Explanation

Explanation

Describe what an alloy is.

         An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of metals or metals with non-metals.

          Alloys are simply known as mixture of metals. A good example is brass – an alloy of 60% Copper and 40% Zinc. Non-metals also can be mixed with metals to form alloy. For example steel is an alloy of metallic Iron and non-metallic Carbon. The composition of the elements can be modified to obtain alloy according to the applications required.

Analyze the differences in structures between substituted alloys and interstitial alloys.

          In the structure of substituted alloy the atoms of one metal replace that of another metal whereas in case of the structure of interstitial alloy, atoms of one metal occupy the space between the atoms of other metal.

        Alloys are usually obtained my mixing the required metals in liquid (molten) state and cooling it to be solidified. During this process, the alloy can form in either of two structures-substituted alloys and interstitial alloy.

        A metal in its pure state consists of atoms arranged in a well-defined, regular pattern. While formation of alloy, the metal made into molten state. Then it is mixed with another molten metal. In this process, the structural arrangement of atoms in their respective lattices gets modified.

        In the preparation of alloys one of the metals is considered as the solvent metal while the other metal is considered as solute atom.

                         

                                                          Figure 1

                When solute atoms replace the solvent atoms and occupy the respective lattice, substituted alloy is formed...

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