Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332


Chapter 10, Problem 2CT
Textbook Problem

Do the same mechanisms that govern gene expression operate in bacterial cells and eukaryotic cells? Explain your answer.

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

To explain: Whether the mechanisms that govern gene expression in bacterial cells and eukaryotic cells are the same.

Concept introduction:

Gene is the fundamental unit of heredity, which is composed of DNA. Each gene specifies a particular protein. For this, the genes are converted into a useful product through the process of gene expression. Gene expression involves the conversion of DNA into RNA through the process of transcription, and this RNA will be converted into proteins through the process of translation. Operons are the set of genes containing a promoter and one or more operators that help to control the transcription process.  A type of operon called lac operon, which can occur in the bacteria, is used to metabolize lactose.

Explanation of Solution

The mechanism of gene expression in prokaryotes is carried out by the operons. One such example is lac operon. They occur in bacteria to metabolize lactose. In this mechanism, lac operon includes multiple genes (mainly three genes) and a promoter with two operators. They express only in the presence of lactose. The first gene codes for an active transport protein that helps to bring the lactose across the plasma membrane inside the cell. The second gene encodes an enzyme that breaks down the bond between the glucose and galactose, which are the two monosaccharide monomers. The third gene encodes an enzyme whose function is not clearly understood.

The mechanism of eukaryotic gene expression is a process where the proteins are expressed and regulated in the eukaryotic cell...

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