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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

Identify the most important types of interparticle forces present in the solids of each of the following substances.

a. Ar

b. HCl

c. HF

d. CaCl2

e. CH4

f. CO

g. NaNO3

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The types of interpaticle forces present in the following molecules have to be explained.

  1. (a) Ar
  2. (b) HCl
  3. (c) HF
  4. (d) CaCl2
  5. (e) CH4
  6. (f) CO
  7. (g) NaNO3

Concept introduction:

                Interparticle forces are the interactions between components of a substance. It has impact on almost all the properties of matter. There are mainly two types of them – intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces.

                Intramolecular forces are nothing but the bonding between the atoms in a molecule.

Intermolecular forces are the forces exist between molecules of a substance. Each of this type has its own sub-classification. The overall classification can be summarized as –

                 images

                                                              Figure 1

images

                                                        Figure 2

images

                                                      Figure 3

                 Intramolecular forces are nothing but the type of bonding between them. Ionic compounds have electrostatic force of attraction, the strongest one. Covalent bonds are of two types, that is polar and non-polar depend upon the polarity of the atoms. Metallic bond is formed between the metal atoms of an element.

                 Intermolecular forces are Van der Waals forces. They are weak and are of two types viz., London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is relatively the strongest one.

                 London dispersion forces exist in all types of molecules. This is the force responsible for the condensation of non-polar compounds into liquids or solids under low temperature.

                 Dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding exist in polar covalent compounds.

Explanation

Explanation

Identify the characteristics of element in (a)

              The element given in (a) is Argon. It belongs to group 18 elements.

            Argon belongs to noble gases elements. It is typically a gaseous element and non-polar.

Identify the interpaticle force present in (a).

          London dispersion forces.

           Both polar and non-polar covalent compounds have London dispersion forces. These forces are due to temporary dipoles and do not exist permanently. The molecules convert to dipoles instantly and disappear. This is due to the uneven distribution of electrons between their atoms occurs momentarily when the bonded electrons approach nucleus. Thus it is a weakest force.

          Since argon is a gaseous element and of non-polar nature, it is possibly to have weak London dispersion forces as intermolecular forces among their molecules. The same was proven.

Identify the characteristics of compound in (b)

          The compound in (b) is hydrogen chloride. H atoms and Cl atoms in HCl are covalently bonded they have considerable difference in their electronegativity value. So it is polar covalent compound.

         Polarity in a compound arises when atoms of considerable variation in the electronegativity bond to each other. Electronegativity value of hydrogen is 2.2 whereas that of chlorine is 3.16. Due to this electronegativity difference between H and Cl atoms, the bond between them is polar. Also, H and Cl are covalently bonded to each other, thus it is a polar covalent compound.

Identify the interpaticle force present in (b).

            London dispersion forces and dipole-dipole forces.

           HCl is a polar covalent compound. Due to polarity, the molecules of HCl form dipoles.  A “dipole” is a species containing weak partial positive and negative charge due to the unsymmetrical distribution of bonding electrons between atoms, is formed. Each dipole orient itself in such a direction that its positive end lies in close proximity to the negative end of the other dipole. The interaction between the dipoles is called “dipole-dipole forces”.

           London dispersion forces also exist in HCl since it exists in all types of covalent compounds irrespective of polar or non-polar.

Identify the characteristics of compound (c).

             The compound in (c) is hydrogen fluoride. H atoms and F atoms in HF are covalently bonded they have considerable difference in their electronegativity value. So it is polar covalent compound.

            Polarity in a compound is due to the bonding between atoms of considerable variation in the electronegativity. Electronegativity value of hydrogen is 2.2 whereas that of fluorine is 3.98. Due to this significant electronegativity difference between H and F atoms, the bond between them is polar. Also, H and F are covalently bonded to each other, thus it is a polar covalent compound.

Identify the interpaticle force present in (c).

          Dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding.

         In each molecule of a polar covalent compound, the electron cloud is displaced from the atom of low electronegativity to the atom of relatively high electronegativity through the covalent bond. As a result a “dipole” – a species containing weak partial positive and negative charge due to the unsymmetrical distribution of bonding electrons between atoms, is formed. Each dipole orient itself in such a direction that its positive end lies in close proximity to the negative end of the other dipole. The interaction between the dipoles is called “dipole-dipole forces”. Since HF is a polar covalent compound it has dipole-dipole forces.

       When polar covalent compounds containing hydrogen and other high electronegativity like fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen they partially bond to hydrogen of the other molecule of same type...

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