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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

Predict which substance in each of the following pairs would have the greater intermolecular forces.

a. CO2 or OCS

b. SeO2 or SO2

c. CH3CH2CH2NH2 or H2NCH2CH2NH2

d. CH3CH3 or H2CO

e. CH3OH or H2CO

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

    The substance having the greater intermolecular force among the given pairs has to be predicted.

                   CO2orOCS

Concept introduction:

  • Matter exists in three distinct physical forms – solid, liquid and gas. There are two types of interactions present in matter – intramolecular meaning, “within the molecule” and intermolecular meaning “between the molecules”.
  • Intramolecular force refers to the type of bonding that holds the atoms or ions together to form a stable molecule. Intermolecular force refers to the type of interaction that exists between the so formed molecules by bonding. 
  • The nature and strength of the intermolecular forces varies in solids, liquids and gases. The classification of intermolecular force is summarized as follows –

images

                                                               Figure 1

There are three types of intermolecular forces - London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. These forces are collectively known as Van der Waals forces. London dispersion forces exist in non-polar covalent compounds. Dipole-dipole forces present in polar covalent compounds. Hydrogen bonding is formed in polar covalent compounds containing Hydrogen and other high electronegativity like Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen. It is relatively the strongest one.

Explanation

CO2orOCS

      Analyze the intermolecular force present in CO2andOCS .

Both CO2andOCS have London dispersion forces. OCS additionally has dipole-dipole  force.

CO2 is a linear and symmetric molecule.  Carbon and Oxygen are doubly bonded to each other through covalent bond.  As a result polarity arises in C-O bond but the presence of center of symmetry in the molecule nullifies the  resultant dipole moment.

                                        

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

    The substance having the greater intermolecular force among the given pairs has to be predicted.

                   SeO2orSO2

Concept introduction:

  • Matter exists in three distinct physical forms – solid, liquid and gas. There are two types of interactions present in matter – intramolecular meaning, “within the molecule” and intermolecular meaning “between the molecules”.
  • Intramolecular force refers to the type of bonding that holds the atoms or ions together to form a stable molecule. Intermolecular force refers to the type of interaction that exists between the so formed molecules by bonding. 
  • The nature and strength of the intermolecular forces varies in solids, liquids and gases. The classification of intermolecular force is summarized as follows –

images

                                                               Figure 1

There are three types of intermolecular forces - London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. These forces are collectively known as Van der Waals forces. London dispersion forces exist in non-polar covalent compounds. Dipole-dipole forces present in polar covalent compounds. Hydrogen bonding is formed in polar covalent compounds containing Hydrogen and other high electronegativity like Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen. It is relatively the strongest one.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

    The substance having the greater intermolecular force among the given pairs has to be predicted.

                   CH3CH2CH2NH2orH2NCH2CH2NH2

Concept introduction:

  • Matter exists in three distinct physical forms – solid, liquid and gas. There are two types of interactions present in matter – intramolecular meaning, “within the molecule” and intermolecular meaning “between the molecules”.
  • Intramolecular force refers to the type of bonding that holds the atoms or ions together to form a stable molecule. Intermolecular force refers to the type of interaction that exists between the so formed molecules by bonding. 
  • The nature and strength of the intermolecular forces varies in solids, liquids and gases. The classification of intermolecular force is summarized as follows –

            images

                                                               Figure 1

There are three types of intermolecular forces - London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. These forces are collectively known as Van der Waals forces. London dispersion forces exist in non-polar covalent compounds. Dipole-dipole forces present in polar covalent compounds. Hydrogen bonding is formed in polar covalent compounds containing Hydrogen and other high electronegativity like Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen. It is relatively the strongest one.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

    The substance having the greater intermolecular force among the given pairs has to be predicted.

                   CH3CH3orH2CO

Concept introduction:

  • Matter exists in three distinct physical forms – solid, liquid and gas. There are two types of interactions present in matter – intramolecular meaning, “within the molecule” and intermolecular meaning “between the molecules”.
  • Intramolecular force refers to the type of bonding that holds the atoms or ions together to form a stable molecule. Intermolecular force refers to the type of interaction that exists between the so formed molecules by bonding. 
  • The nature and strength of the intermolecular forces varies in solids, liquids and gases. The classification of intermolecular force is summarized as follows –

            images

                                                               Figure 1

There are three types of intermolecular forces - London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. These forces are collectively known as Van der Waals forces. London dispersion forces exist in non-polar covalent compounds. Dipole-dipole forces present in polar covalent compounds. Hydrogen bonding is formed in polar covalent compounds containing Hydrogen and other high electronegativity like Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen. It is relatively the strongest one.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

    The substance having the greater intermolecular force among the given pairs has to be predicted.

                   CH3OHorH2CO

Concept introduction:

  • Matter exists in three distinct physical forms – solid, liquid and gas. There are two types of interactions present in matter – intramolecular meaning, “within the molecule” and intermolecular meaning “between the molecules”.
  • Intramolecular force refers to the type of bonding that holds the atoms or ions together to form a stable molecule. Intermolecular force refers to the type of interaction that exists between the so formed molecules by bonding. 
  • The nature and strength of the intermolecular forces varies in solids, liquids and gases. The classification of intermolecular force is summarized as follows –

            images

                                                               Figure 1

There are three types of intermolecular forces - London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. These forces are collectively known as Van der Waals forces. London dispersion forces exist in non-polar covalent compounds. Dipole-dipole forces present in polar covalent compounds. Hydrogen bonding is formed in polar covalent compounds containing Hydrogen and other high electronegativity like Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen. It is relatively the strongest one.

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