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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

In each of the following groups of substances, pick the one that has the given property. Justify each answer.

a. highest boiling point: CCl4., CF4, CBr4

b. lowest freezing point: LiF, F2, HCl

c. smallest vapor pressure at 25°C: CH3,OCH3, CH3CH2OH, CH3CH2CH3

d. greatest viscosity: H2S, HF, H2O2

e. greatest heat of vaporization: H2CO, CH3CH3, CH4

f. smallest enthalpy of fusion: I2, CsBr, CaO

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

Explanation

CCl4,CBr4,CF4

Identify the compound which has highest boiling point and justify it.

CBr4 has the highest boiling point. Compare to the other compounds, the   intermolecular force in CBr4 is high in strength.

CBr4 is a non-polar covalent compound. Among the given compounds CBr4 has the largest size. Being a non-polar covalent compound CBr4 has London dispersion forces. When the molecule is large in size London dispersion forces becomes extensive in it. Hence in CBr4 the intermolecular force is quite strong

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, lowest freezing point, smallest vapor pressure, greatest viscosity, greatest heat of vaporization, smallest enthalpy of fusion have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories viz., solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter. Compounds with strong intermolecular forces have high melting point, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of fusion and low vapor pressure.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

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