   Chapter 10, Problem 61GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Butyl mercaptan, C4H9SH, has a very bad odor and is among the compounds added to natural gas to help detect a leak of otherwise odorless natural gas. In an experiment, you burn 95.0 mg of C4H9SH and collect the product gases (SO2, CO2, and H2O) in a 5.25-L flask at 25 °C. What is the total gas pressure in the flask, and what is the partial pressure of each of the product gases?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The total pressure and the partial pressure of each gas produced during the combustion of C4H9SH in 5.25L flask at 25C should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas Equation:

Any gas can be described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.  At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Molar mass: The molar mass of a substance is determined by dividing the given mass of substance by the amount of the substance.

Explanation

Given,

Volume, V = 5.25 Lmass  = 95 mgGas constant, R = 0.0821 L atm mol-1K-1Temperature, T = 25CTotal Pressure, P = ?Partial pressure of individual gases = ?

First the total pressure of gases present in the given volume of flask under given temperature condition is determined using ideal gas equation then the partial pressure for the gases formed during the combustion of given compound is determined.

The total pressure calculation is as follows,

The given mass of compound should be first converted into grams then to moles which then only can be substituted into the ideal gas equation.  Similarly, the given temperature should be converted into kelvin temperature which is obtained as follows,

Given mass of the compound = 95.0 mg = 95.0mg1000mg×1g=0.095gMoles = MassMolarmass=0.095g90.18gmol1=1.05×103molesince1g = 1000mgMolarmass=(4×12.01)+(10×1.007)+(1×32.07)=90.18g/molGiven temperature = 25oC=273

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