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What is osmotic pressure? How is osmotic pressure calculated? Molarity units are used in the osmotic pressure equation. When does the molarity of a solution approximately equal the molality of the solution? Before refrigeration was common, many foods were preserved by salting them heavily, and many fruits were preserved by mixing them with a large amount of sugar (fruit preserves). How do salt and sugar act as preservatives? Two applications of osmotic pressure are dialysis and desalination. Explain these two processes.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 10, Problem 8RQ
Textbook Problem
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What is osmotic pressure? How is osmotic pressure calculated? Molarity units are used in the osmotic pressure equation. When does the molarity of a solution approximately equal the molality of the solution? Before refrigeration was common, many foods were preserved by salting them heavily, and many fruits were preserved by mixing them with a large amount of sugar (fruit preserves). How do salt and sugar act as preservatives? Two applications of osmotic pressure are dialysis and desalination. Explain these two processes.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The definition, calculation and application of osmotic pressure have to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

When a semipermeable membrane, separates a solution and pure solvent. The solvent molecules are passed through the semi permeable membrane. There is gradual increase in the volume of solution with a decrease in volume of the solvent with respect to time. The flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane into the solution is called as osmosis. By the time system reaches equilibrium, the changes in the liquid level stops. There is a higher hydrostatic pressure on the solution than compared to that of the pure solvent because there is variation in the liquid levels at this point. The excess pressure on the solution is called osmotic pressure.

Explanation of Solution

To define and calculate osmotic pressure

Colligative properties of a substance include the depression in the freezing point, elevation of boiling-point and osmotic pressure. These are dependant only on the number present and not based on the solute particles present in an ideal solution.

When a semi permeable membrane, separates a solution and pure solvent. The solvent molecules are passed through the semi permeable membrane. There is gradual increase in the volume of solution with a decrease in volume of the solvent with respect to time. The flow of solvent through a semi permeable membrane into the solution is called as osmosis. By the time system reaches equilibrium, the changes in the liquid level stops. There is a higher hydrostatic pressure on the solution than compared to that of the pure solvent because there is variation in the liquid levels at this point. The excess pressure on the solution is called osmotic pressure.

The additional pressure that has to be given to solution in order to stop osmosis is called as osmotic pressure. Osmosis is the run of solvent into a solution by means of semipermeable membrane.

Osmotic pressure can be calculated by the equation,

π=MRT

π=OsmoticpressureM=MolarityofsolutionR=GaslawconstantT=Temperature

To discuss when the molality and molarity of solution will be equal

The molality and molarity of the solution will be equal when mass of solvent in kilograms will be equal to the volume of solution in litres

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Chapter 10 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 10 - Consider Fig. 10-9. According to the caption and...Ch. 10 - Once again, consider Fig. 10-9. 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